A 7-year-old 36.8-kg (81-lb) castrated male Labrador Retriever was examined because of a gingival mass near the left mandibular canine tooth. The mass had first been noticed approximately 8 weeks previously. The patient was reportedly healthy, other than having hypothyroidism, which was controlled with twice daily thyroxine administration.
Results of a general physical examination were unremarkable. Oral examination revealed moderate generalized plaque and calculus with mild gingivitis. An exophytic, nonulcerated gingival mass that was approximately 10 mm in diameter and had an irregular surface was identified at the mesial aspect of the left mandibular canine
A 14-month-old 28.9-kg (63.6-lb) castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of an area of gingival recession involving the right mandibular first molar. The dog was reportedly otherwise healthy and had been treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (375 mg, PO, q 12 h) and twice-daily oral rinses with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate for the previous 7 days. The owner reported having seen the dog chewing on a wooden deck in the past.
Results of a general physical examination were unremarkable. Oral examination revealed only minimal plaque, calculus, and gingivitis, except that moderate gingivitis and gingival recession
Objective—To determine patterns of alveolar bone
loss (periodontitis) and other lesions evident on fullmouth
survey radiographs of cats.
Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were evaluated
for evidence and severity of alveolar bone loss, odontoclastic
resorption lesions (ORL), retained roots,
missing teeth, signs of endodontic disease secondary
to periodontitis, and apical resorption.
Results—106 (72%) cats had some degree of periodontitis,
100 (68%) were missing teeth, 98 (67%)
had ORL, 78 (53%) had expansion of the buccal alveolar
bone at 1 or more canine teeth, 75 (51%) had
retained roots, 48 (33%) had apical resorption, and 12
(8%) had signs of endodontic disease secondary to
periodontitis. Cats < 4 years old were not significantly
more likely than the general population to have normal
alveolar bone height. Prevalence of ORL
increased with age, but cats ≥ 13 years old were less
likely than the general population to have moderate or
severe generalized periodontitis. Purebred cats were
not significantly more likely to have periodontitis or
ORL than mixed-breed cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that periodontitis is common in cats and that horizontal
bone loss is the most common radiographic
pattern of alveolar bone loss. Purebred cats were not
more likely than mixed-breed cats to have ORL or
periodontitis, but when they did have periodontitis, it
was more likely to be moderate to severe. Cats with
ORL were less likely than cats without ORL to have
normal alveolar bone height and more likely to have
severe focal vertical bone loss. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether odontoclastic
resorption lesions were associated with radiographic
evidence of periapical lucencies in cats.
Animals—265 feline dental patients.
Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were examined
for evidence of odontoclastic resorption lesions, periapical
lucencies, periodontitis, and fractured teeth.
Results—Odontoclastic resorption lesions affecting
567 teeth were identified in 161 (60.8%) cats.
Periapical lucencies were identified in 53 teeth in 35
cats. Periapical lucencies were most commonly associated
with fractured teeth (25 teeth with periapical
lucencies) and severe periodontitis (21 teeth). None of
the periapical lucencies appeared to be specifically
associated with resorption lesions. Prevalence of periapical
lucencies in cats with resorption lesions was not
significantly different from prevalence in cats without.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that although odontoclastic resorption lesions are
common in cats, pulpal involvement associated with
these lesions does not appear to be associated with
development of radiographically detectable periapical
lucencies. Crown amputation with intentional root
retention may, therefore, be a suitable alternative to
extraction in selected cats with odontoclastic resorption
lesions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1866–1869)
Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).
Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.
Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.
Objective—To document the short- and long-term outcomes of surgical endodontic treatment in dogs in a clinical setting.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—15 dogs that underwent surgical endodontic treatment.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent surgical endodontic treatment at 3 institutions from January 1995 to December 2011 were reviewed. Information extracted included signalment, history, initial clinical signs, physical and radiographic examination findings, treatment, and outcome. Outcome was determined through evaluation of the pre- and postoperative radiographs as well as clinical and radiographic findings at follow-up evaluations. On the basis of radiographic findings, treatment was considered successful if the periapical lesion and bone defect created by surgery had completely healed and no new root resorption was detected; a treatment was considered to have no evidence of failure if the periapical lesion remained the same or had not completely resolved and root resorption was static.
Results—15 dogs were treated by means of apicoectomy and retrograde filling following a failed or complicated orthograde root canal treatment. The mean long-term follow-up time was 15.2 months (range, 3 to 50 months). On radiographic evaluation, 10 of 15 dogs had successful resolution of the periapical disease; 5 dogs had no radiographic evidence of failure of endodontic treatment. All dogs were considered to have a successful clinical outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical endodontic treatment was an effective option for salvaging endodontically diseased but periodontally healthy teeth of dogs in which orthograde treatment was unsuccessful and nonsurgical retreatment was unlikely to succeed.
To identify associations between microbes and host genes in cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a debilitating inflammatory oral mucosal disease with no known cause, compared with healthy cats and cats with periodontitis (control cats).
19 control cats and 23 cats with FCGS.
At least 1 caudal oral mucosal swab specimen was obtained from each cat. Each specimen underwent unbiased metatranscriptomic next-generation RNA sequencing (mNGS). Filtered mNGS reads were aligned to all known genetic sequences from all organisms and to the cat transcriptome. The relative abundances of microbial and host gene read alignments were compared between FCGS-affected cats and control cats and between FCGS-affected cats that did and did not clinically respond to primary treatment. Assembled feline calicivirus (FCV) genomes were compared with reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) primers commonly used to identify FCV.
The only microbe strongly associated with FCGS was FCV, which was detected in 21 of 23 FCGS-affected cats but no control cats. Problematic base pair mismatches were identified between the assembled FCV genomes and RT-PCR primers. Puma feline foamy virus was detected in 9 of 13 FCGS-affected cats that were refractory to treatment and 5 healthy cats but was not detected in FCGS-affected cats that responded to tooth extractions. The most differentially expressed genes in FCGS-affected cats were those associated with antiviral activity.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that FCGS pathogenesis has a viral component. Many FCV strains may yield false-negative results on RT-PCR-based assays. Coinfection of FCGS-affected cats with FCV and puma feline foamy virus may adversely affect response to treatment.
OBJECTIVE To describe the radiographic outcome of root canal treatment (RCT) of canine teeth of cats.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 32 cats with 37 canine teeth with complicated crown fractures that underwent RCT.
PROCEDURES Medical record databases of 5 referral veterinary hospitals were searched to identify cats that underwent RCT between 1998 and 2016. Only cats that had at least 1 follow-up examination during which radiographs were obtained of the treated canine tooth or teeth were included in the study. Dental radiographs obtained before and immediately after RCT and during all follow-up examinations were reviewed. Treatment was considered successful if the periodontal ligament space was within reference limits and preoperative external inflammatory root resorption (EIRR), if present, had stabilized. Treatment was considered to have no evidence of failure if preoperative EIRR had stabilized and preexisting periapical lucency was stable or decreased in size but had not resolved. Treatment was considered to have failed if periapical lucency or EIRR developed subsequent to RCT or preexisting periapical lucency increased in size or preoperative EIRR progressed following RCT.
RESULTS Follow-up time after RCT ranged from 3 to 72 months. The RCT was successful for 18 (49%) of the 37 treated teeth, had no evidence of failure for 12 (32%), and failed for 7 (19%). Preexisting EIRR and patient age ≥ 5 years significantly increased the rate of RCT failure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that RCT was a viable treatment option to salvage endodontically diseased canine teeth in cats.
Veterinary dentistry has made great strides providing treatments that were once available only to people. When performed for the medical benefit of animals, procedures such as professional dental cleaning, root canal treatment, and even, in selected cases, periodontal surgery and orthodontic correction can prevent and treat disease, improve quality of life, and enhance and sustain the human-animal bond.
Veterinarians are now being urged to provide for dogs and cats another sophisticated procedure that has become common in human dentistry: dental implants (ie, implants designed to replace missing teeth, consisting of a metal part inserted into the underlying bone to support