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  • Author or Editor: Mikihiko Tokuriki x
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Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (baep) were recorded in 4 dogs to analyze the relationship between acoustic stimulus intensities and peak latencies of each wave, and to investigate the relative effects of xylazineatropine, xylazine-atropine-ketamine, and xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations and the time-course effects of the latter 2 drug combinations on baep. Click stimulations fixed at a stimulus rate of 10/s and a frequency of 4 kHz were delivered at intensities ranging from 10- to 110-dB sound pressure level (spl) in 10-dB steps for analyzing the relationship between the acoustic stimulus intensities and the peak latencies and at an intensity of 110-dB spl. for investigating the effects of the sedative and anesthetic drug combinations and their timecourse effects on baep.

Waves I to VI were identified with stimulus intensity of ≥ 50-dB spl. Wave VII was observed in some records, but was excluded from statistical analysis. As stimulus intensity was increased from 50- to 110-dB spl, the latency decreased for all waves during xylazine-atropineketamine anesthesia. There were no statistically significant differences in the peak latencies of each wave in baep among xylazine-atropine, xylazine-atropine-ketamine, and xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combinations 20 minutes after drug administration, except that the latency of wave VI during xylazine-atropine sedation was significantly (P < 0,01) shorter than that detected during xylazine-atropine-ketamine or xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital anesthesia. There were no significant changes in peak latencies of waves I, II, III, V, and VI for 90 minutes after administration of the xylazine-atropine-ketamine combination and for 120 minutes after administration of the xylazine-atropine-pentobarbital combination. It was concluded that baep did not change over time after xylazine-atropine-ketamine or xylazine-atropine pentobarbital administration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To develop an instrument that could be sandwiched between the hoof and shoe of horses and that would reliably measure vertical ground reaction forces and three-dimensional acceleration at the walk, trot, and canter.

Animals—5 clinically sound Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—The recording instrument (weight, 350 g) consisted of 2 metal plates, 2 bolts, 4 load cells, and 3 accelerometers. It was mounted to the hoof with a glue-on shoe and devised to support as much load exerted by a limb as possible. The load cells and accelerometers were wired to a 16-channel transmitter, and transmitted signals were received and amplified with a telemetry receiver.

Results—The recording instrument could measure in real time the 4 components of the ground reaction force or their resultant force along with acceleration in 3 dimensions as horses walked, trotted, or cantered on a treadmill. Patterns of force-time curves recorded for consecutive strides were similar to each other and to those previously reported, using a force plate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The recording instrument developed for use in the present study allowed us to record vertical ground reaction force and acceleration in 3 dimensions in horses at the walk, trot, and canter. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:979–985)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine histochemical and biochemical properties of muscle during adaptation to training on a flat or sloped track.


22 Thoroughbreds.


Samples were obtained from the middle gluteus muscle before and after training programs were conducted, using a needle-biopsy technique. Training programs consisted of horses running 1,600 m on a flat or sloped track for 16 weeks. Amplitude of middle gluteus muscle activity per burst was calculated. Muscle fiber composition and area were examined on serial cross sections processed by standard histochemical staining procedures (ATPase stain after prior incubation with an acid or base, followed by succinate dehydrogenase [SDH] stain). Furthermore, SDH and phosphofructokinase activities were determined biochemically, and composition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms was analyzed electrophoretically.


Training resulted in substantial adaptations. Relative contribution of muscle fiber with high SDH activity (type-I and -IIa fibers) to total cross-sectional area, SDH activity, and composition of MHC-IIa isoforms were increased. Gel electrophoresis revealed a large amount of MHC-IIx isoform and a small amount of MHC-IIb isoform in the muscle. Although root mean square of muscle activity for training on a sloped track was 7.6% higher than the value obtained while training on a flat track, muscle histochemical and biochemical properties did not differ significantly between groups training on flat and sloped tracks.


Training adaptations for contractile and metabolic properties of the middle gluteus muscle were evident for the 2 types of training. However, training adaptations did not differ significantly between groups trained on flat or sloped tracks. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1536–1539)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of growth and training on metabolic properties in muscle fibers of the gluteus medius muscle in adolescent Thoroughbred horses.

Animals—Twenty 2-year-old Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Horses in the training group were trained for 16 weeks, and control horses were kept on pasture without training. Samples were obtained by use of a needle-biopsy technique from the middle gluteus muscle of each horse before and after the training period. Composition and oxidative enzyme (succinic dehydrogenase [SDH]) activity of each fiber type were determined by use of quantitative histochemical staining procedures. Whole-muscle activity of SDH and glycolytic enzyme (phosphofructokinase) as well as myosin heavy-chain isoforms were analyzed biochemically and electrophoretically, respectively.

Results—The SDH activity of type-I and -IIA fibers increased during growth, whereas whole-muscle activity was unchanged. Percentage of type-IIX/B muscle fibers decreased during training, whereas that of myosin heavy-chain IIa increased. The SDH activity of each fiber type as well as whole-muscle SDH activity increased during training. An especially noticeable increase in SDH activity was found in type-IIX/B fibers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in muscle fibers of adolescent Thoroughbreds are caused by training and not by growth. The most noticeable change was for the SDH activity of type-IIX/B fibers. These changes in the gluteus medius muscle of adolescent Thoroughbreds were considered to be appropriate adaptations to running middle distances at high speeds. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1408–1412)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research