Objective—To quantitatively compare 3 commonly
used treatments for navicular syndrome (NS) in horses:
heel-elevation shoeing alone, heel-elevation shoeing
and phenylbutazone administration, heel-elevation
shoeing and injection of the distal interphalangeal
joint (DIPJ) with triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and all
3 treatments in combination.
Animals—12 horses with NS.
Procedure—A force plate was used to measure
baseline peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF)
of the forelimbs. Each horse's forelimbs were shod
with 3° heel-elevation horseshoes; PVGRF was measured
24 hours and 14 days after shoeing. Fourteen
days after shoeing (following data collection),
phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h) was administered
(5 treatments). Two hours after the fifth treatment,
PVGRF was measured; TA (6 mg) was injected
into the DIPJ of the forelimb that generated the lower
baseline PVGRF. Fourteen days later, PVGRF was
measured. Phenylbutazone was administered as
before, and PVGRF was measured. Percentage body
weight of force (%BWF) was calculated from PVGRF
measurements and used for comparisons.
Results—14 days after shoeing, mean %BWF in both
forelimbs significantly increased from baseline; additional
administration of phenylbutazone significantly
increased %BWF applied from the more lame forelimb.
Compared with shoeing alone, there was no significant
change in %BWF after injection of the DIPJ
with TA in shod horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Heel-elevation
shoeing alone and in combination with phenylbutazone
administration quantitatively decreased lameness
in horses with NS. Although not significant, additional
DIPJ injection with TA resulted in further quantitative
decrease in lameness, compared with that
achieved via shoeing alone. (Am J Vet Res
To assess the efficacy of an equine-origin liquid amnion allograft (ELAA) derived from both amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane on the healing time of experimentally induced distal limb wounds in horses.
8 adult horses.
On day 0, horses were anesthetized and a 2.5 X 2.5-cm, full-thickness skin wound was created on the dorsal aspect of each metacarpus and bandaged. On day 9, wound margins were injected with ELAA (treatment) or 0.9% NaCl (control). Bandages were changed at specific intervals through day 91 and, on each occasion, wounds were photographed to allow calculation of wound area. Exuberant granulation tissue was resected, if present. Wounds were deemed healed when completely epithelialized. Mean wound area was compared between groups throughout the study period.
Only 1 wound (control) remained unhealed at day 91. No difference was found between the treatment and control groups in either wound area over time (P = 1.0) or time for wounds to reduce in size by 95% (P = .2) Exuberant granulation tissue required resection twice (1 control wound and 1 treatment wound).
In this model, a single treatment with ELAA administered locally by SC injection did not accelerate distal limb wound healing in horses. However, it is possible that naturally occurring, chronic, or nonhealing wounds would respond differently.
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of 2 tiludronate administration protocols on measures of lameness in horses with navicular syndrome (NS).
ANIMALS 12 horses with bilateral forelimb NS.
PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive tiludronate (1 mg/kg), diluted in 5 L of isotonic electrolyte solution and delivered through a jugular vein catheter (systemic treatment group; n = 6), or tiludronate (0.1 mg/kg), diluted with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution to a total volume of 35 mL and delivered into the lateral digital vein of each forelimb with an IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) technique (IVRLP group; 6). Mean peak vertical ground reaction force (pVGRF) measured with a stationary force plate and subjective lameness scores (SLSs) were recorded before (day −1) and at predetermined time points after tiludronate administration on day 0. Mean pVGRFs (standardized as percentage body weight of force) and mean SLSs for the most lame forelimb and for both forelimbs of horses in each group were compared with day −1 values to determine treatment effect.
RESULTS Mean pVGRF for both forelimbs and for the most lame forelimbs of systemically treated horses were significantly increased on days 120 and 200, compared with day −1 results. No significant difference in mean pVGRF was observed for IVRLP-treated horses. The SLSs were not improved at any time point following systemic treatment and were improved only on day 120 following IVRLP.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Tiludronate (1 mg/kg, IV) as a single systemic treatment appeared to be beneficial for horses with NS, but no horses were judged as sound during the study period. Additional research on IVRLP with tiludronate is needed before this method can be recommended. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:167–173)
OBJECTIVE To determine effects for 2 IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) protocols involving tiludronate on lameness of horses with navicular syndrome.
ANIMALS 15 horses with bilateral forelimb navicular syndrome.
PROCEDURES Shoeing and anti-inflammatory injection into the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of both forelimbs (day 0) were performed on all horses. On day 14, horses received 1 of 3 IVRLPs consisting of 0.1 mg of tiludronate/kg (low-dose tiludronate [LDT]; n = 5), 0.2 mg of tiludronate/kg (high-dose tiludronate [HDT]; 5), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo; 5); treatments were repeated at days 24 and 34. Lameness severity of both forelimbs was evaluated via subjective evaluation and force plate analysis before and after shoeing on day 0 and at days 14, 34, 60, and 120. Mean subjective lameness score and peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) for the more severely lame forelimb (LFL) and both (combined) forelimbs (CFL) were compared over time.
RESULTS For all horses, mean PVGRF for the LFL and CFL was increased at 14 days. No difference in mean subjective lameness score or mean PVGRF was detected within groups at any time. Mean PVGRF of the CFL was higher for the HDT group than the LDT and placebo groups only at 120 days.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of the tiludronate IVRLP protocols described here provided no further improvement in lameness over therapeutic shoeing and anti-inflammatory injection of the DIPJ in horses with navicular syndrome. However, HDT-treated horses were objectively less lame than LDT- or placebo-treated horses at 120 days.
OBJECTIVE To investigate associations between inertial sensor and stationary force plate measurements of hind limb lameness in horses.
ANIMALS 21 adult horses with no lameness or with mild hind limb lameness.
PROCEDURES Horses were instrumented with inertial sensors and evaluated for lameness with a stationary force plate while trotting in a straight line. Inertial sensor–derived measurements of maximum and minimum pelvic height differences between right and left halves of the stride were compared with vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces (GRFs). Stepwise linear regression was performed to investigate the strength of association between inertial sensor measurements of hind limb lameness and amplitude, impulse, and time indices of important events in the vertical and horizontal GRF patterns.
RESULTS Difference in minimum pelvic position was moderately (Ra2 = 0.60) associated with the difference in peak vertical GRF but had little association with any horizontal GRF measurements. Difference in maximum pelvic position was strongly (Ra2 = 0.77) associated with a transfer of vertical to horizontal ground reaction impulse in the second half of the stance but was not associated with difference in peak vertical GRF.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Inertial sensor–derived measurements of asymmetric pelvic fall (difference in minimum pelvic position) indicated a decrease in vertical GRF, but similar measurements of asymmetric pelvis rise (difference in maximum pelvic position) indicated a transfer of vertical to horizontal force impulse in the second half of the stance. Evaluation of both pelvic rise and fall may be important when assessing hind limb lameness in horses.
To determine whether a stainless steel implant sterilized with a novel cold atmospheric plasma sterilization (CAPS) device adversely affects local tissues in rabbits and whether CAPS was as effective as steam sterilization with an autoclave to inactivate Pasteurella multocida.
31 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.
Steam-autoclaved stainless steel implants inoculated with P multocida underwent a second steam autoclave sterilization (AIA) or CAPS (AICAPS). One AIA implant and 3 AICAPS implants were randomly placed subcutaneously at 4 sites in 21 rabbits (84 implants). These rabbits were monitored daily for 5 days for evidence of systemic illness and local tissue reactions at the implantation sites and then euthanized. Samples were taken from each implant site for bacterial culture and histologic examination.
Cultures of samples obtained from all sites were negative for bacterial growth. No significant difference was observed in mean skin thickness or erythema between AIA and AICAPS implant sites on any observed day. Also, individual histologic grades for the epidermis, dermis, subcutis, and muscle and total histologic grade were not significantly different between AIA and AICAPS implant sites.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization was noninferior to steam sterilization of P multocida–contaminated stainless steel implants in the rabbits in the present study. However, studies of the efficacy of CAPS for inactivation of other important bacteria are needed.