To determine the sequence of cardiovascular and blood gas changes induced by ingestion of fumonisin-containing culture material in swine and to examine the temporal relationship of these changes to plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations.
12 healthy castrated pigs (38 to 50 kg).
Pigs were instrumented to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples. Baseline values were obtained, and pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Control pigs (n = 6) were fed a standard grower diet, whereas culture material that contained 20 mg of fumonisin B1/kg of body weight was added to the feed of treated pigs (n = 6) each day. Hemodynamic data, results of arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses, and plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were recorded every 12 hours until treated pigs were euthanatized because of impending death from pulmonary edema.
Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were increased in plasma of treated pigs within 24 hours of initial fumonisin exposure and continued to increase dramatically until euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs had increased respiratory rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure, along with decreased heart rate and cardiac output in the 12-hour period before euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs also had systemic arterial hypotension, arterial and mixed venous hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, decreased oxygen delivery, and increased oxygen consumption immediately before euthanasia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
Fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine is probably caused by acute left-sided heart failure. Onset of hemodynamic changes was associated with plasma sphinganine concentration ≥ 2.2 μM/L and plasma sphingosine concentration ≥ 1 µM/L (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1292–1300)
Objective—To determine whether cardiovascular
dysfunction is evident in horses with leukoencephalomalacia
experimentally induced by administration of
Animals—11 healthy horses of various breeds (body
weight, 252 to 367 kg).
Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 3
groups and administered fumonisin B1 daily. Horses
received IV injections of 0 (control horses; n = 4), 0.01
(3), or 0.20 mg (4) of fumonisin B1/kg for 7 to 28 days.
Horses were examined daily for evidence of neurologic
disease. When neurologic signs consistent with
leukoencephalomalacia were evident, horses were
anesthetized, and catheters were inserted for evaluation
of the cardiovascular system. After recovery from anesthesia,
hemodynamic measurements were obtained.
Results—Fumonisin-treated horses with clinical
signs of neurologic disease had evidence of cardiovascular
dysfunction manifested as decreases in
heart rate, cardiac output, right ventricular contractility
(assessed by measuring the maximal rate of
change of right ventricular pressure), coccygeal artery
pulse pressure, and pH and base excess in venous
blood as well as increases in systemic vascular resistance,
compared with values for control horses.
Fumonisin-treated horses with and without clinical
signs of neurologic disease also had higher serum
and right ventricular sphinganine and sphingosine
concentrations than control horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An association
was detected among fumonisin-induced neurologic
disease, increased serum and myocardial sphinganine
and sphingosine concentrations, and decreased cardiovascular
function in horses. Fumonisin-induced
decreases in cardiovascular function may contribute to
the pathophysiologic development of leukoencephalomalacia
in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:538–545).