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Abstract

Case Description—A 2-month-old male degu was treated for preputial damage and lateral penile displacement that occurred during attempted castration.

Clinical Findings—Bruising and swelling of the prepuce and severe edema to the left of the prepuce were evident. The penis could not be extruded from the prepuce. Radiography revealed a large bladder. Contrast medium injected into the prepuce filled the peripreputial subcutaneous tissues.

Treatment and Outcome—During surgical exploration through a peripreputial approach, the penis was found to be completely separated from the prepuce and located in the adjacent subcutaneous tissue. The penis was repositioned in the prepuce and anchored with a suture at its base. The following day, the preputial orifice was crusted over, urine was leaking from the incision, and the penis could not be extruded from the prepuce. The anchoring suture was removed, and the tip of the penis was sutured to the preputial orifice so that the penis protruded slightly from the prepuce. Urination was normal after the second surgery. Two years later, the preputial orifice remained adhered to the distal portion of the penis and the exposed penile tissue was healthy.

Clinical Relevance—Penile displacement from the prepuce is an unusual complication of castration in degus. The surgical technique used in this animal may be an effective means of repair. Permanent exposure of the tip of the penis may be well-tolerated in degus.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs with lameness previously attributed to canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—369 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Hospital medical records from 1994 to 2003 were reviewed for dogs in which the referring veterinarian had diagnosed hip dysplasia or hip pain. Dogs were designated as having hind limb lameness because of partial or complete CCLR or CHD.

Results—8% of dogs were sexually intact females, 43% were spayed females, 14% were sexually intact males, and 35% were castrated males. Mean age was 3.8 years (range, 3 months to 15 years). The most common breeds were the Labrador Retriever (21%), German Shepherd Dog (13%), and Golden Retriever (11%). The prevalence of CCLR as the cause of hind limb lameness was 32% (95% confidence interval, 27.2% to 36.8%). The distribution of CCLR among hind limbs was left (29%), right (28%), and bilateral (43%). Of 119 dogs with CCLR, 94% had concurrent radiographic signs of CHD, 92% had stifle joint effusion, and 81% had a cranial drawer sign.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the high prevalence of CCLR in dogs referred for lameness because of CHD, it is important to exclude other sources of stifle joint disease before making recommendations for treatment of CHD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1109–1111)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether use of electrostimuluated acupuncture (ESA) would result in significant improvements in ground reaction forces and lameness scores in dogs with chronic elbow joint osteoarthritis secondary to elbow joint dysplasia.

Design—Randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial.

Animals—9 dogs with chronic forelimb lameness and radiographic evidence of elbow joint osteoarthritis.

Procedures—All dogs had a 3-week control acclimation period during which gait analysis was performed weekly. Dogs then received ESA once weekly for 3 weeks followed by a sham treatment once weekly for 3 weeks or received the sham treatment followed by ESA. Gait analysis was repeated prior to each treatment, and owners were asked to provide pain scores by use of a visual analog scale method.

Results—Treatment (control, acupuncture, or sham) did not have a significant effect on ground reaction forces for any limb. Owners of 8 of the 9 dogs were able to correctly guess the time period when ESA was delivered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ESA did not have any significant effects on severity of lameness, as determined by measurement of ground reaction forces, or severity of pain, as determined by visual analog scale pain scores, in dogs with chronic elbow joint osteoarthritis secondary to elbow joint dysplasia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare 2 screening methods for detecting evidence of hip dysplasia (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals [OFA] and PennHIP) in dogs.

Design—Diagnostic test evaluation study.

Animals—439 dogs ≥ 24 months of age that received routine hip joint screening from June 1987 through July 2008.

Procedures—Dogs were sedated, and PennHIP radiography was performed (hip joint– extended [HE], compression, and distraction radiographic views). The HE radiographic view was submitted for OFA evaluation. A copy of the HE radiographic view plus the compression and distraction radiographic views were submitted for routine PennHIP evaluation, including quantification of hip joint laxity via the distraction index (DI).

Results—14% (60/439) of dogs had hip joints scored as excellent by OFA standards; however, 52% (31/60) of those had a DI ≥ 0.30 (range, 0.14 to 0.61). Eighty-two percent of (183/223) dogs with OFA-rated good hip joints had a DI ≥ 0.30 (range, 0.10 to 0.77), and 94% (79/84) of dogs with OFA-rated fair hip joints had a DI ≥ 0.30 (range, 0.14 to 0.77). Of all dogs with fair to excellent hip joints by OFA standards, 80% (293/367) had a DI ≥ 0.30. All dogs with OFA-rated borderline hip joints or mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia had a DI ≥ 0.30 (range, 0.30 to 0.83).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Dogs judged as phenotypically normal by the OFA harbored clinically important passive hip joint laxity as determined via distraction radiography. Results suggested that OFA scoring of HE radiographs underestimated susceptibility to osteoarthritis in dogs, which may impede progress in reducing or eliminating hip dysplasia through breeding.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of diet restriction on development of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.

Procedures—Forty-eight 6-week-old puppies from 7 litters were paired with littermates by sex and weight, and each pairmate was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups of 24 dogs each. Starting at 8 weeks of age, 1 group was fed ad libitum (control fed) and the other was fed 25% less (restricted fed) of the same diet for life on a pairwise basis. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended view at multiple intervals prior to 1 year of age and at annual intervals thereafter on the basis of birth anniversary. A board-certified radiologist unaware of group assignment scored the radiographs for evidence of osteoarthritis.

Results—Prevalence of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in all dogs increased linearly throughout the study, from an overall prevalence of 15% at 2 years to 67% by 14 years. Restricted-fed dogs had lower prevalence and later onset of hip joint osteoarthritis. Median age at first identification of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis was significantly lower in the control-fed group (6 years), compared with the restricted-fed group (12 years).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Restricted feeding delayed or prevented development of radiographic signs of hip joint osteoarthritis in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Lifetime maintenance of 25% diet restriction delayed onset and reduced severity of hip joint osteoarthritis, thus favorably affecting both duration and quality of life. In addition, the data indicated that development of hip joint osteoarthritis was not bimodal in these dogs but occurred as a continuum throughout life.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between a circumferential femoral head osteophyte (CFHO) and osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia, and to ascertain whether CFHO, like osteoarthritis, varies between diet-restricted and control-fed dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs were paired by size, sex, and litter and assigned to 1 of 2 equal groups at 2 months of age. The control-fed group was fed ad libitum, and the diet-restricted group was fed 25% less on a pairwise basis of the same diet for life. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed yearly for life. Each radiograph was evaluated for radiographic signs of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia and for the presence and severity of a CFHO.

Results—41 of the 48 (85.4%) dogs had a CFHO, which was detected at a median age of 5.4 years, and 33 of those 41 (80.5%) developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Nineteen (79.2%) dogs in the diet-restricted group and 22 (91.7%) in the control-fed group had a CFHO at a median age of 9 and 3 years, respectively. Of the dogs with a CFHO, 12 (63.2%) in the diet-restricted group and 20 (90.0%) in the control-fed group developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia at a median age of 11 and 6.5 years, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated a relationship between the CFHO and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. If a CFHO is present in Labrador Retrievers, it might be considered an early indicator of osteoarthritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO) and osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.

Procedure—In each of 24 sex- and size-matched pairs fed the same diet, a restricted-fed dog was fed 25% less than a control dog for life. The dogs' hips were evaluated in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic projection at 16, 30, and 52 weeks of age and then yearly for life. Histologic examination of hip joint tissues was performed on 45 dogs.

Results—Median age at death was 11.2 years. Adjusting for feeding group, dogs with a CCO were 3.7 times as likely to develop radiographic signs of osteoarthritis than those without a CCO. Stratified by diet, 100% of the control dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis and 55% of restricted-fed dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. The CCO was the first radiographic change seen in 22 of 29 (76%) dogs with osteoarthritis. Overall, 35 of 37 (95%) dogs with a CCO had histopathologic lesions of osteoarthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate a relationship between a CCO on the femoral neck and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis in Labrador Retrievers evaluated over their life span. A CCO is an important early radiographic indication of osteoarthritis associated with canine hip dysplasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:233–237)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association