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Objective—To evaluate clinical data for cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) with Enterococcus spp infections during rehabilitation.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—50 stranded cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles hospitalized between 2006 and 2012.

Procedures—Medical records for turtles from which Enterococcus spp were isolated were reviewed retrospectively, and clinical data, including morphometric data, body temperature at admission, physical examination findings, antimicrobial medication history, history of medications administered IV, environmental data, day of diagnosis, clinical signs at diagnosis, microbiological testing results, sources of positive culture results, hematologic and plasma biochemical data, cytologic and histopathologic results, radiographic findings, antimicrobial treatments, time to first negative culture result, treatment duration, results of subsequent cultures, and case outcome, were collated and analyzed.

ResultsEnterococcus spp were isolated from bacteriologic cultures of blood, bone, joint, and respiratory tract samples and a skin lesion, with supporting evidence of infection provided by histopathologic, cytologic, and radiographic data. Positive culture results were associated with clinical problems such as lethargy, anorexia, and lameness. Most (34/43 [79%]) turtles for which an antemortem diagnosis was made survived with treatment and were released into the wild.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles may be affected by serious Enterococcus spp infections during rehabilitation. Recognition and treatment of these infections are important for successful rehabilitation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe complications and outcome associated with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion treated with pleuroperitoneal shunts in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records at 4 veterinary schools were examined to identify dogs with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion that were treated by use of a pleuroperitoneal shunt between 1985 and 1999. Signalment, history, physical examination and laboratory findings, cause and type of pleural effusion, medical and surgical treatments, complications, and outcome were reviewed.

Results—10 of 14 dogs had idiopathic chylothorax, and 4 had an identified disease. All but 1 dog with idiopathic chylothorax and 1 dog with chylothorax from a heart base tumor had unsuccessful thoracic duct ligation prior to pump placement. No intraoperative complications developed during shunt placement. Short-term complications developed in 7 of 13 dogs, necessitating shunt removal in 2 dogs and euthanasia in 1. Eight of 11 dogs with long-term follow- up developed complications; the overall mean survival time and the interval in which dogs remained free of clinical signs of pleural effusion were 27 months (range, 1 to 108 months) and 20 months (range, 0.5 to 108 months), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pleuroperitoneal shunts can effectively palliate clinical signs associated with intractable pleural effusion in dogs. Numerous short- and long-term complications related to the shunt should be expected. Most complications can be successfully managed, but even when shunts are functional some treatments fail because of severe abdominal distension or massive pleural fluid production that overwhelms the functional capacity of the shunt. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1590–1597)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association