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History

A 9-day-old pony colt was referred for evaluation of tachycardia and tachypnea observed since birth. Gestation and parturition had been normal. Since birth, milk had been observed coming from both nostrils when the foal was in lateral recumbency. During the first week after birth, a mild upper respiratory tract noise developed that was persistent.

On evaluation, the foal was bright and alert and in fair body condition. Physical examination revealed a rectal temperature of 38.4°C (101.2°F), a heart rate of 110 beats/min, and a respiratory rate of 80 beats/min. No murmurs or arrhythmias were detected on thoracic auscultation, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 13-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was referred to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center, Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, for echocardiographic evaluation. The horse had been hospitalized at the referring veterinarian's clinic for approximately 1 week for fever, tachycardia, limb edema, and lethargy Results of a CBC revealed marked leukocytosis (20,390 WBCs/μL; reference range, 5,400 to 14,300 WBCs/μL). Treatment included antimicrobials, glucocorticoids, and NSAIDs. The sudden onset of a loud right-sided heart murmur prompted referral for further evaluation. At the time of admission, the horse was quiet and alert and afebrile, with mild sinus tachycardia (heart rate,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the intestinal incisional dehiscence rate following enterotomy for foreign body removal in dogs.

ANIMALS

247 client-owned dogs with intestinal foreign bodies treated with enterotomy between November 2001 and September 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data were collected regarding signalment, history, surgery, clinicopathologic findings, hospitalization, intestinal incisional dehiscence, and survival to hospital discharge. Dogs were grouped according to whether intestinal incisional dehiscence occurred (dehiscence group) or did not occur (nondehiscence group) following enterotomy, and the rate of dehiscence for the total number of enterotomies during the study period was calculated. Univariable analysis was performed to identify variables associated with intestinal incisional dehiscence.

RESULTS

8 of the 247 (3.2%) dogs had preoperative septic peritonitis, and all 8 dogs survived to hospital discharge. Incisional dehiscence occurred following 5 of the 247 (2.0%) enterotomies, and only 2 dogs in the dehiscence group did not survive to hospital discharge. Duration of hospitalization was longer for dogs in the dehiscence group than for dogs in the nondehiscence group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that enterotomy for intestinal foreign body removal had a lower rate of dehiscence in dogs during the study period, compared with rates previously reported; however, the low rate should not be used as a reason to perform an enterotomy rather than an enterectomy when needed. Surgeons should thoroughly evaluate the bowel and perform an enterotomy only when indicated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare bacteriologic culture results for superficial swab and tissue biopsy specimens obtained from dogs with open skin wounds.

ANIMALS

52 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

For each dog, 1 wound underwent routine preparation prior to collection of 2 specimens, 1 by superficial swab (Levine) technique and 1 by tissue biopsy. Specimens were processed for bacteriologic culture. Two observers determined whether any detected difference in culture results for the 2 types of specimen would have resulted in differing treatment plans.

RESULTS

Culture results of swab and tissue biopsy specimens were identical in 11/52 (21.2%) cases. Tissue biopsy specimen and swab cultures yielded positive results for 44 (84.6%) and 40 (76.9%) wounds, respectively. With regard to mean recovery rates of bacteria from wounds with positive culture results, both the biopsy specimens and swabs yielded 3.4 bacterial species/wound. All wounds for which swab cultures yielded no growth also had negative culture results for biopsy specimens. Biopsy specimen and swab culture results were in agreement with regard to the most common bacteria cultured. In 7/52 (13%) wounds, the observers would have treated the patient differently on the basis of the results of the 2 cultures.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that culture of a swab collected by the Levine technique is an appropriate noninvasive alternative to culture of a tissue biopsy specimen. A negative result obtained from culture of a swab is likely to be reliable. Disagreement between the results of swab and tissue biopsy specimen cultures is likely of low clinical importance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effectiveness of a digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT) for preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

SAMPLE

42 third-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students were randomly assigned to 3 instructional methods: independent study (ie, 45 minutes to read a highlighted textbook chapter), lecture (ie, 45-minute lecture by a faculty member), or digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT; ie, 45-minute narrated, interactive module). Written and practical tests were administered after each instruction session. For the practical test, each student was required to obtain a series of ultrasound images of a live horse, and images were later scored for quality by an individual unaware of the instructional method used.

RESULTS

Higher-quality ultrasound images were obtained by veterinary students who had reviewed the DIMT rather than the analogous information in textbook chapters. No difference in scores was identified between students in the lecture group and those in the DIMT group. Students’ perceptions suggested that practical instruction facilitated by clinicians was a key component of learning how to perform ultrasonography in horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results supported the use of DIMTs in preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for the development of pasture- and endocrinopathy-associated laminitis (PEAL) in horses and ponies in North America.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 199 horses with incident cases of PEAL and 351 horses from 2 control populations (healthy horses [n = 198] and horses with lameness not caused by laminitis [153]) that were evaluated in North America between January 2012 and December 2015 by veterinarian members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners.

PROCEDURES North American members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners were contacted to participate in the study, and participating veterinarians provided historical data on incident cases of PEAL, each matched with a healthy control and a lameness control. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compare data on PEAL-affected horses with data on horses from each set of controls.

RESULTS Horses with an obese body condition (ie, body condition score ≥ 7), generalized or regional adiposity (alone or in combination), preexisting endocrinopathy, or recent (within 30 days) glucocorticoid administration had increased odds of developing PEAL, compared with horses that did not have these findings.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The present study identified several risk factors for PEAL that may assist not only in managing and preventing this form of laminitis, but also in guiding future research into its pathogenesis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association