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  • Author or Editor: Michele R. Rosenbaum x
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To determine the effect of mold extracts with high protease activity on the biological activity of allergenic tree, grass, and weed extracts, using in vivo and in vitro methods, in atopic dogs.


15 dogs with history and clinical signs of atopy. All dogs had strong positive reactions (3+ or 4+) to 1 or more preselected allergens and negative reactions (0) to molds.


Mold extracts and saline solution were coincubated separately with tree, grass, and weed pollen extracts at 4 C for 30 and 180 days. Skin end-point titration (30-day incubation) and ELISA inhibition (30- and 180- day incubations) tests were performed on all samples. The biological activity of pollen extracts coincubated with mold extracts was compared with that of pollen extracts coincubated with saline solution.


In the skin end-point titration test, weed pollen extracts coincubated with a mixed mold extract lost a statistically significant amount of biological activity, compared with saline coincubated controls. In the ELISA inhibition test, grass and weed pollen extracts incubated with a mixed mold extract lost a significant amount of biological activity, compared with saline coincubated controls. A significant correlation in the measurement of biological activity was found between a loss of end-point dilution in the skin end-point titration test and a decrease in relative potency, as measured by the ELISA inhibition test for allergenic grass and weed extracts.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Mold proteases can decrease the biological activity of certain grass and weed pollen extracts when coincubated in the same vial for 30 days. Separation of mold and pollen extracts, when preparing immunotherapy vaccines, may help prevent loss of pollen extract potency and increase the vaccine’s stability and efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1447-1452)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify factors affecting prognosis, outcome, and complications associated with pemphigus foliaceus in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs with pemphigus foliaceus.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, age at diagnosis, duration to diagnosis, body area affected, initial immunosuppressive regimens and concurrent use of antimicrobials and sucralfate or histamine receptor 2 blocking agent, adverse effects of treatment, duration of treatment, number of visits for follow-up care, cause of death, and credentials of the veterinarians responsible for continued care.

Results—The case fatality rate was 60.5%. Factors significantly correlated with survival time included concurrent use of antimicrobials during initiation of immunosuppressive treatment and a lower number of adverse effects to treatment. Treatment times lasting more than 10 months from diagnosis correlated significantly with survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with or prophylactic use of antimicrobials may be warranted during initial immunosuppressive treatment. The inverse correlation between survival time and number of adverse treatment effects was not unexpected because it was reflective of the owners' decision to euthanatize their dogs and of corticosteroid-related secondary diseases. Survival beyond the tenth month of treatment predicted long-term survival, which suggests that dogs require careful management during the early months of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1312–1316)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in dogs has led to more effective treatment plans, including skin barrier repair and new targeted treatments for management of allergy-associated itch and inflammation. The intent of this review article is to provide an update on the etiologic rationale behind current recommendations that emphasize a multimodal approach for the management of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Increasing knowledge of this complex disease process will help direct future treatment options.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association