Objective—To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome.
Design—Prospective case series study.
Animals—40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress.
Procedures—Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed.
Results—Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) had a low plasma mean platelet component (MPC) concentration and whether MPC was associated with outcome.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study and survival analysis.
ANIMALS 95 dogs with IMHA (cases) as well as 95 healthy dogs and 95 sick dogs without IMHA (controls) matched to cases by age, reproductive status, and breed.
PROCEDURES Plasma MPC concentration at initial examination was compared among groups. For dogs with IMHA only, sex, age, serum urea and bilirubin concentrations, Hct, platelet count, and plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, and MPC concentrations were evaluated for associations with survival to 42 days after initial examination.
RESULTS Plasma MPC concentration was significantly lower in dogs with IMHA than in the other 2 dog groups. In dogs with IMHA, plasma MPC concentration was the only factor significantly associated with outcome. The optimal plasma MPC concentration cutoff value for predicting nonsurvival of dogs with IMHA was 19.1 g/dL; values ≤ 19.1 g/dL were associated with nonsurvival. Likewise, the survival curve for dogs with plasma MPC concentrations ≤ 19.1 g/dL differed significantly from that for dogs with values > 19.1 g/dL. The mean estimated risk of death for dogs with IMHA decreased by 16% for every unit increase in plasma MPC concentration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In dogs with IMHA, platelets appeared to have been activated to a greater degree, as determined by lower plasma MPC concentrations, than in healthy dogs or sick dogs without IMHA. Plasma MPC concentration at initial examination may be useful for predicting prognosis in dogs with IMHA.
Objective—To determine whether dogs with ascites secondary to right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) have bleeding disorders associated with hypofibrinogenemia and discordant plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer assay results (ie, a circulating concentration of FDPs higher than the reference range and a circulating concentration of D-dimer within the reference range).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—80 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Dogs with ascites secondary to right-sided CHF (group 1; n = 20), unhealthy dogs without cardiac disease (group 2; 40), and dogs with left-sided CHF (group 3; 20) were included in the study. Urine bile acids-to-creatinine concentration ratios were calculated as a marker of liver function. Differences among groups regarding coagulation profile analysis results and prevalence of discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results were determined.
Results—No significant differences were detected among the 3 groups regarding urine bile acids-to-creatinine concentration ratios. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower for group 1 versus groups 2 or 3. Prevalence of discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results was significantly higher for group 1 versus groups 2 or 3. Eighteen group 1 dogs had discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results. Ten of these dogs had concurrent hypofibrinogenemia, 2 of which had clinical signs of bleeding. Only 10 dogs in groups 2 or 3 had discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results; none of these dogs had hypofibrinogenemia or clinical signs of bleeding.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with right-sided CHF and ascites may be at increased risk for primary hyperfibrinogenolysis (ie, hypofibrinogenemia and discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results).
Objective—To evaluate RBC distribution width (RDW) in dogs with chronic degenerative valvular disease (CDVD) with compensated or decompensated heart failure.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—27 healthy dogs and 135 dogs with CDVD (87 dogs with compensated heart failure and 48 dogs with decompensated heart failure).
Procedures—The RDW and various CBC and serum biochemical variables were compared among groups. Correlations between RDW and various echocardiographic variables were evaluated.
Results—Mean ± SD RDW in dogs with CDVD (13.1% ± 1.0%) was not significantly different from that of healthy dogs (12.8% ± 0.8%). The RDW of dogs with CDVD and compensated heart failure (13.0% ± 1.0%) was not significantly different from that of dogs with CDVD and decompensated heart failure (13.2% ± 1.1%). The RDW had a significant, weak, negative correlation with Hct (correlation coefficient, −0.250), hemoglobin concentration (correlation coefficient, −0.219), and mean corpuscular volume (correlation coefficient, −0.211). The RDW had a significant, weak, positive correlation with 1 echocardiographic index of CDVD severity (ie, the left atrium-to-aorta ratio [correlation coefficient, 0.183]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study population, RDW did not seem to be associated with the presence of heart failure or CDVD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:858–862)
OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography (STR) for the detection of heart base masses (HBMs) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 30 dogs with an HBM and 120 breed-matched control dogs (60 healthy dogs and 60 dogs with heart disease and no HBM).
PROCEDURES In a blinded manner, 2 observers (designated as A and B) evaluated STR views from each dog for a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart, tracheal deviation, cardiomegaly, findings suggestive of pericardial effusion or right-sided congestive heart failure, and soft tissue opacities suggestive of pulmonary metastases. Investigators subsequently provided a final interpretation of each dog's HBM status (definitely affected, equivocal, or definitely not affected).
RESULTS Considering equivocal interpretation as negative or positive for an HBM, the sensitivity of STR for diagnosis of an HBM was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% to 57.5%) and 56.7% (95% CI, 38.9% to 74.4%), respectively, for observer A and 63% (95% CI, 46.1% to 80.6%) and 80.0% (95% CI, 65.7% to 94.3%), respectively, for observer B. The corresponding specificity was 96.7% (95% CI, 93.5% to 99.9%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer A and 99.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 100%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer B. The presence of a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart or tracheal deviation, or both, was significantly associated with a true diagnosis of HBM.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that STR is a highly specific but not a highly sensitive predictor of HBM in dogs.