Objective—To assess the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from experimentally infected white-tailed deer fawns to colostrum-deprived calves by use of a BVDV strain isolated from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer.
Animals—5 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and 6 colostrum-deprived calves.
Procedures—Fawns were inoculated intranasally with a noncytopathic BVDV-1a isolate (2 mL containing 106.7 TCID50/mL), and 2 days after inoculation, animals were commingled until the end of the study. Blood and serum samples were obtained on days −6, 0, 7, 14, and 21 after inoculation for reverse transcriptase PCR assay, virus neutralization, and BVDV-specific antibody ELISA. Nasal, oral, and rectal swab specimens were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 17, and 21 for reverse transcriptase PCR testing. By 21 days after inoculation, all animals were euthanized and necropsied and tissues were collected for histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical analysis, and virus isolation.
Results—All fawns became infected and shed the virus for up to 18 days as determined on the basis of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation results. Evidence of BVDV infection as a result of cohabitation with acutely infected fawns was detected in 4 of the 6 calves by means of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these findings, BVDV transmission from acutely infected fawns to colostrum-deprived calves appeared possible.
Objective—To describe an outbreak of encephalomyelitis
caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in
Procedure—Horses with clinical signs suggestive of
encephalomyelitis caused by WNV were examined.
Date, age, sex, breed, and survival status were recorded.
Serum samples were tested for anti-WNV antibodies,
and virus isolation was attempted from samples of
brain tissue. Climate data from local weather recording
stations were collected. An epidemic curve was constructed,
and case fatality rate was calculated.
Results—The most common clinical signs were ataxia,
hind limb paresis, and muscle tremors and fasciculations.
Eight horses had been vaccinated against WNV from 2 to
21 days prior to the appearance of clinical signs. West
Nile virus was isolated from brain tissue of 2 nonvaccinated
horses, and anti-WNV IgM antibodies were detected
in 132 nonvaccinated horses; in 2 other nonvaccinated
horses, anti-WNV antibodies were detected and WNV
was also isolated from brain tissue. Thirty-one (22.8%)
horses died or were euthanatized. The peak of the outbreak
occurred on September 6, 2002. Ambient temperatures
were significantly lower after the peak of the outbreak,
compared with prior to the peak.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The peak risk
period for encephalomyelitis caused by WNV in northern
Indiana was mid-August to mid-September. Reduction in
cases coincided with decreasing ambient temperatures.
Because of a substantial case fatality rate, owners of
horses in northern Indiana should have their horses fully
protected by vaccination against WNV before June. In
other regions of the United States with a defined mosquito
breeding season, vaccination of previously nonvaccinated
horses should commence at least 4 months
before the anticipated peak in seasonal mosquito numbers,
and for previously vaccinated horses, vaccine
should be administered no later than 2 months before
this time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:84–89)
Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.
Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.
Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.
Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.