Objective—To investigate the effects of insulin detemir in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Design—Prospective, uncontrolled clinical trial.
Animals—10 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Dogs were treated with insulin detemir SC every 12 hours for 6 months. Follow-up evaluations were done at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks and included evaluation of clinical signs and measurement of blood glucose concentration curves and serum fructosamine concentrations.
Results—Insulin detemir administration resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose and serum fructosamine concentrations at 6 months, compared with pretreatment values. Median insulin dosage at the end of the study was 0.12 U/kg (0.055 U/lb; range, 0.05 to 0.34 U/kg [0.023 to 0.155 U/lb], SC, q 12 h). Hypoglycemia was identified in 22% (10/45) of the blood glucose concentration curves, and 6 episodes of clinical hypoglycemia in 4 dogs were recorded. A subjective improvement in clinical signs was observed in all dogs during the 6-month study period. On the basis of clinical signs and blood glucose concentration curves, efficacy of insulin detemir at the end of the study was considered good in 5 dogs, moderate in 3, and poor in 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that SC injection of insulin detemir every 12 hours may be a viable treatment for diabetes mellitus in dogs. Insulin detemir dosages were lower than reported dosages of other insulin types needed to maintain glycemic control, suggesting that insulin detemir should be used with caution, especially in small dogs.
Objective—To determine overall survival time and identify prognostic factors associated with survival time in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—114 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Data for analysis included history, signalment, physical examination findings, hematologic and serum biochemical data, presence of ketoacidosis, and diagnosis of concurrent diseases at initial evaluation. The effects of possible predictors on survival time were determined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results—Median survival time of diabetic cats was 516 days (range, 1 to 3,468 days); 70%, 64%, and 46% lived longer than 3, 6, and 24 months, respectively. Survival time was significantly shorter for cats with higher creatinine concentrations, with a hazard of dying approximately 5% greater for each increase of 10 μg/dL in serum creatinine concentration (adjusted HR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.007). Ketoacidosis was not significantly associated with survival time (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.590 to 1.78).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus had a fair to good prognosis. High serum creatinine concentration at diagnosis was associated with a poor outcome, likely because of the adverse effects of renal dysfunction. Ketoacidosis apparently was not associated with decreased survival time, suggesting that this complication should not necessarily be regarded as unfavorable.