A 7-day-old Red Angus bull calf with a history of respiratory distress of 3 days’ duration was evaluated. This calf had been unthrifty since birth. At the onset of respiratory distress, the owner administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acida (6.6 mg/kg [3 mg/lb], SC, once), with no obvious improvement. On physical examination, the calf was dull but alert and responsive. The calf was tachypneic (100 breaths/min [reference range, 30 to 60 breaths/min]) and cyanotic. Mild dehydration and scleral injection were present. On auscultation of the thorax, lung sounds were increased on the left side and markedly decreased to absent
Objective—To evaluate skeletal characteristics of pelvic limbs with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency in Labrador Retrievers.
Animals—30 adult purebred Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Pelvic limbs (n = 28) of 14 dogs without CCL deficiency were classified as control limbs, whereas the limbs of 16 dogs with CCL deficiency were considered affected by (18 limbs) or predisposed to (10 contralateral limbs of dogs with 1 affected limb) CCL deficiency. Skeletal characteristics were evaluated via physical examination, radiography, and computed tomography. Radiographic and computed tomographic variables were compared among limb groups by use of a mixed-model ANOVA.
Results—The tibial plateau slope was steeper in CCL-deficient limbs but not in predisposed limbs, compared with the slope in control limbs. The angle between diaphyseal and proximal tibial axes was increased in both CCL-deficient and predisposed limbs. The relative width of the proximal portion of the tibia and the inclination of the patellar ligament did not differ among limb groups. The overall and distal femoral anteversion angles were greater in CCL-deficient and predisposed limbs, whereas the femoral condyle trochanteric angle was decreased in those limb groups, compared with findings in control limbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cranial angulation of the proximal portion of the tibia, excessive steepness of the tibial plateau, and distal femoral torsion appeared more likely to be associated with CCL deficiency than femoral angulation, tibial torsion, intercondylar notch stenosis, and increased inclination of the patellar ligament.
Objective—To determine the epidemiologic plausibility
of a sylvatic transmission cycle for Neospora caninum
between wild canids and beef cattle.
Design—Spatial analysis study.
Animals—1,009 weaned beef steers from 94 beef
herds in Texas.
Procedure—Calves were grouped on the basis of
seroprevalence for N caninum and ecologic region in
Texas. The Morans I test was used to evaluate spatial
interdependence for adjusted seroprevalence by ecologic
region. Cattle density (Number of cattle/259 km2
[Number of cattle/100 mile2] of each ecologic region)
and abundance indices for gray foxes and coyotes
(Number of animals/161 spotlight-transect [census] km
[Number of animals/100 census miles] of each ecologic
region) were used as covariates in spatial regression
models, with adjusted seroprevalence as the outcome
variable. A geographic information system (GIS) that
used similar covariate information for each county was
used to validate spatial regression models.
Results—Spatial interdependence was not detected
for ecologic regions. Three spatial regression models
were tested. Each model contained a variable for cattle
density for the ecologic regions. Results for the 3
models revealed that seroprevalence was associated
with cattle density and abundances of gray foxes, coyotes,
or both. Abundances of gray foxes and coyotes
were collinear. Results of a GIS-generated model validated
these spatial models.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Texas, beef
cattle are at increased risk of exposure to N caninum
as a result of the abundance of wild canids and the
density of beef cattle. It is plausible that a sylvatic
transmission cycle for neosporosis exists. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2000;217:1361–1365)
Analytical precision and accuracy in residue chemistry are constantly improving toward the goal of a safe food supply. On July 6, 2012, the USDA FSIS announced a restructuring of the US NRP with respect to sampling of compounds in meat, poultry, and egg products and the scheduling of animal production classes.1 The FSIS has also implemented several new MRMs for analyzing tissue samples from harvested animals for violative residues. These MRMs allow for several compounds to be tested simultaneously. As a result, compounds that have not been previously tested in certain animal production classes are now included in
Veterinary professionals work daily to prevent and relieve animal suffering and promote animal health and welfare. Accomplishing this means making safe, effective, and economic veterinary care available and accessible to as many animal owners as possible.
Cost is a barrier to access to care, and a pet owner's financial limitations may force decisions that are against the best interest of the pet's well-being. Between 1998 and 2011, a steady increase was observed in the proportion of owned pets in the United States that received no health care from a veterinary practice, from 32% to 45% for cats and 15% to