Objective—To determine whether dogs with naturally
occurring canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis have laboratory
evidence of hypercoagulability.
Animals—9 dogs with naturally occurring CPV enteritis
and 9 age-matched control dogs.
Procedure—Blood was collected from all dogs within
24 hours of admission for thromboelastography (TEG)
and determination of activated partial thromboplastin
time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin III
(AT) activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Fibrin-fibrinogen
degradation product (FDP) concentration, Ddimer
concentration, and platelet count were obtained
in dogs with CPV enteritis only. Records were
reviewed for evidence of thrombosis or phlebitis.
Results—All 9 dogs with CPV enteritis had evidence
of hypercoagulability, determined on the basis of significantly
increased TEG maximum amplitude and
decreased AT activity. Fibrinogen concentration was
significantly higher in dogs with CPV enteritis than in
control dogs. The aPTT was moderately prolonged in
dogs with CPV enteritis, and FDP concentration was
< 5 mg/ml in 7 of 9 dogs. No dogs had a measurable
D-dimer concentration. Platelet counts were within
reference range. Four of 9 dogs had clinical evidence
of venous thrombosis or phlebitis associated with
catheters. One dog had multifocal splenic thrombosis
identified at necropsy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with
CPV enteritis have a high prevalence of clinical thrombosis
or phlebitis and laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability
without disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
Thromboelastography may help identify
hypercoagulable states in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To compare histologic artifacts caused by
carbon dioxide (CO2) or 810-nm diode surgical lasers
used to obtain small biopsy specimens of skin from
Procedure—21 skin biopsy specimens were collected
from each dog. Three biopsy specimens were
obtained with a CO2 or an 810-nm diode laser at 3
operating settings each, and 3 biopsy specimens
were obtained with a 6-mm biopsy punch instrument
(controls). After processing, biopsy specimens were
examined for artifacts related to laser-tissue interactions.
Microscopically visible char was measured
from the lateral edge of each specimen obtained with
Results—There were no significant differences
among mean char distances in biopsy specimens
obtained with the CO2 laser at various settings. Mean
char distance was significantly greater in all skin biopsy
specimens obtained with the diode laser, compared
with those obtained with the CO2 laser. Mean
char distance was significantly greater in biopsy specimens
obtained with the 810-nm diode laser at high
power, compared with biopsy specimens obtained
with the 810-nm diode laser at low power.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that the CO2 laser caused less thermal injury at
margins of skin biopsy specimens; therefore, if a surgical
laser is used for removal of cutaneous masses
or to obtain skin biopsy specimens, use of the CO2
laser is recommended. Veterinarians performing a
biopsy by using a surgical laser should be aware that
laser-induced artifacts may render small biopsy specimens
useless for providing accurate histologic diagnosis.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1562–1566)
Objective—To determine whether hematologic and
serum biochemical values for blood samples obtained
from cats via vascular access ports (VAP) are comparable
to those for samples obtained by direct venipuncture.
Animals—14 healthy cats.
Procedure—A VAP was surgically implanted in a jugular
vein in each cat. Blood samples were obtained from the
VAP and by direct venipuncture of the contralateral jugular
vein 10 weeks after VAP placement. Results of
hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were
compared by use of a paired t-test. The P value to reject
the null hypothesis was adjusted to account for multiple
comparisons by using the Bonferroni procedure in which
the nominal P-to-reject value is divided by the number of
comparisons (0.05/24 = 0.002).
Results—Paired samples (VAP and venipuncture)
obtained 10 weeks after VAP placement were evaluated
for each cat. Of the 24 measured analytes, only
potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations
differed significantly (P < 0.001 for all 3) between VAP
and venipuncture samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that samples obtained from VAP are suitable for routine
hematologic monitoring of feline cancer patients.
Sample hemolysis may account for a slight increase in
potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations
obtained from VAP samples. However, the values of
variables most critical for monitoring of patients receiving
chemotherapy (ie, mature neutrophil and platelet
counts) are comparable. If proper techniques are used,
VAP may be used for administration of chemotherapy as
well as for blood collection in cats undergoing cancer
treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:482–485)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures on the biomechanical behavior of the C5-C6 vertebral motion unit (VMU) in dogs.
SAMPLE 14 vertebral columns (C4 through C7) from canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were assigned to a conventional or slanted ventral slot group (n = 7/group). For each specimen, the C5-C6 VMU was tested in ventral and dorsal bending and positive and negative axial torsion before and after surgery. Range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and energy absorption were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS Both procedures significantly increased the ROM and stiffness and significantly decreased the energy absorption of the C5-C6 VMU in ventral and dorsal bending. Both procedures also increased the ROM in positive and negative axial torsion. In negative torsion, total stiffness and stiffness over the maximum ROM tested decreased less for the slanted slot procedure than for the conventional slot procedure. There were no significant differences between procedures for any of the other biomechanical outcomes examined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the biomechanical response of the C5-C6 VMU to the conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures was not significantly different, especially when considering postsurgical instability induced by both procedures. This was most likely due to disruption of the nucleus pulposus and dorsal annulus fibrosus of the disk with both procedures. On the basis of these findings, neither procedure appeared biomechanically superior. Comparative clinical studies are warranted to further evaluate the 2 procedures.
To describe oncologic outcomes following administration of a uniform stereotactic radiotherapy protocol (SRT; 10 Gy X 3) for canine intranasal tumors and to identify whether any clinical or dosimetric factors were predictive of event-free or overall survival time (EFST or OST).
In this single-institution retrospective study, the medical records database was searched for canine nonlymphomatous intranasal tumors treated with 10 Gy X 3 SRT between August 2013 and November 2020. Findings regarding adverse effects and outcomes were analyzed overall, for dogs grouped on the basis of life stage (mature adult, senior, or end of life), and for treatment-related or tumor-related variables to identify potential predictors of outcome.
After SRT, most dogs clinically improved with minimal acute radiotoxicity. The median EFST was 237 days; median OST was 542 days. Receipt of other tumor-directed therapies before or after SRT was associated with improved EFST in senior dogs (hazard ratio [HR], 0.416) and improved OST in mature adult (HR, 0.241) and senior dogs (HR, 0.348). In senior dogs, administration of higher near-minimum radiation doses was associated with improved EFST (HR, 0.686) and OST (HR, 0.743). In senior dogs, chondrosarcoma was associated with shorter OST (HR, 7.232), and in dogs at end of life, having a squamous cell or transitional carcinoma was associated with worse EFST (HR, 6.462).
This SRT protocol results in improved quality of life and prolonged OST for dogs of all life stages. Radiation protocol optimization or use of multimodal therapy may further improve outcomes.
Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.