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  • Author or Editor: Michael W. Ross x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine features of postoperative wound infection caused by Actinobacillus spp in horses undergoing clean, elective surgery and to evaluate bacterial susceptibility profiles of bacteria isolated.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 horses.

Procedure—Data were retrieved from medical records and the microbiology laboratory database.

Results—1,604 horses underwent clean, elective surgical procedures during the study period. Of these, 23 (1.43%) had postoperative wound infections, and Actinobacillus spp was isolated from 10 of these 23 (43%). Surgical procedures in these 10 horses included laryngoplasty with ventriculocordectomy (n = 3), arthroscopy (3), desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (2), removal of laryngoplasty prostheses (1), and hygroma resection (1). Seven horses survived, and 3 were euthanatized. All 10 Actinobacillus isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 6 were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur and gentamicin. During the 5-year period of the study, Actinobacillus organisms were isolated from 35 of 513 (6.8%) samples from the general hospital population submitted for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—During the study period, Actinobacillus spp was isolated from a higher than expected percentage of horses that developed postoperative wound infections after clean, elective surgery. Susceptibility profiles for these isolates were different from typical susceptibility profiles for Actinobacillus isolates, suggesting that a pattern of resistance may be emerging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1306–1310)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results (ie, return to racing and earnings per race start) of surgical versus nonsurgical management of sagittal slab fractures of the third carpal bone in racehorses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—32 racehorses (19 Thoroughbreds, 11 Standardbreds, and 2 Arabians).

Procedure—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment and treatment. Follow-up information was obtained from race records. Robust regression analysis was performed to evaluate earnings per start in horses that raced at least once before and after injury.

Results—22 (69%) horses raced at least once after treatment of the fracture. All 7 horses treated by means of interfragmentary compression raced after treatment, and horses that underwent interfragmentary compression had significantly higher earnings per start after the injury than did horses treated without surgery. Eight of 9 horses treated by means of arthroscopic debridement of the damaged cartilage and bone raced after treatment, but only 7 of 16 horses treated without surgery (ie, stall rest) were able to return to racing after treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that racehorses with sagittal slab fractures of the third carpal bone have a favorable prognosis for return to racing after treatment. Horses treated surgically were more likely to race after treatment than were horses treated without surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:945–950)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify scintigraphic abnormalities in the pelvic region of horses examined because of hind limb lameness or poor performance and determine the clinical relevance of areas of abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake (ARU) in these horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—128 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, history, admitting complaints, physical examination findings, and results of lameness examinations was recorded. Clinical relevance of areas of ARU was determined by comparison with results of other diagnostic tests. For horses with clinically relevant areas of ARU, follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners and trainers and analysis of race records.

Results—Areas of ARU were identified in the tuber coxae (25 horses), ischiatic tuber (9), hip joint (10), third trochanter (10), ilium (5), sacral tuber region (22), greater trochanter (1), cranial femoral cortex (1), skeletal muscle surrounding the pelvis (34), or multiple areas (11). In 44 horses, areas of ARU were associated with the primary cause of lameness; in 51, areas of ARU were not associated with the primary cause of lameness; and in 33, the primary cause of lameness was not determined. Thirty-six of the 44 horses with clinically relevant areas of ARU were available for follow-up; 15 (42%) had a good outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that pelvic scintigraphy may be useful in identifying abnormalities in horses with hind limb lameness or poor performance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224: 88–95)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate equids with enostosis-like lesions (ELLs) and document the clinical and epidemiological features of this disease.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—79 equids with a scintigraphic diagnosis of at least 1 ELL on ≥ 1 occasion.

Procedures—Medical records of 4,992 equids that underwent bone scintigraphy between March 1997 and March 2009 were reviewed; 78 horses and 1 pony had a scintigraphic diagnosis of an ELL. For those equids, signalment; physical, scintigraphic, radiographic, and lameness examination results; and outcome were reviewed.

Results—Of the 79 equids, 4 (5.1%) had anatomically distinct ELLs on 2 (n = 3) or 4 (1) separate occasions that caused lameness in different limbs. Thus, there were 85 ELL-related admissions to the hospital. Overall, 157 ELLs were detected. Among all equids undergoing scintigraphic examination, Thoroughbreds were more commonly and Standardbreds were less commonly affected. Older animals were more likely to have ELLs. Lameness was directly attributed to scintigraphically evident ELLs in 42 of the 85 (49.4%) admissions. The tibia (62/157 [39.5%]) and the radius (46/157 [29.3%]) were most commonly affected. The ELLs located in the humerus caused more severe lameness than did ELLs in other anatomic locations. Lameness severity was associated with radiopharmaceutical uptake intensity. Among racehorses, those with 1 ELL were more likely to return to racing than were those with multiple ELLs detected in 1 scintigraphic examination; mean interval from diagnosis to first start was 184 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this retrospective evaluation of a large group of equids with ELLs have provided a better understanding of this disease process.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream would decrease inflammation at sites of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) in healthy horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses (12 forelimbs).

Procedures—Bilateral IVRLP with 2.5 g of amikacin sulfate was performed twice in each horse, with 24 hours between each session. Horses were treated with topical 1% diclofenac liposomal cream (treated limbs) or a placebo cream (control limbs). All injection sites were evaluated before the first IVRLP session and 24 hours after the second session by means of ultrasonographic examination by a trained ultrasonographer who was unaware of the treatment received. Circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores were recorded by a veterinarian who was also unaware of treatment received.

Results—After IVRLP, control limbs had a significantly greater increase in subcutaneous thickness, compared with treated limbs. Ultrasonographic and visual assessment scores were significantly higher in control versus treated limbs. The mean change in limb circumference was greater, but not significantly so, in control limbs, compared with treated limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium liposomal cream to sites of IVRLP in healthy horses decreased inflammation as judged by visual assessment and ultrasonography. Decreased inflammation may allow extended use of IVRLP and may result in a reduction in pain in treated horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To report the outcome of surgical treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx in horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—64 horses.

Procedure—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, fracture classification, and treatment. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone conversation or evaluation of production records.

Results—Thirty-eight horses had moderately comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx. Two horses were euthanatized immediately. Fractures of the proximal phalanx in 36 horses were repaired with open reduction and internal fixation with a successful outcome in 33 (92%) horses. Reconstruction of the fracture was performed in most horses by use of a long curved incision, transection of the collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joint, and open exposure of the proximal articular surface of the proximal phalanx. Twenty-six horses had severely comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx. Six horses were euthanatized immediately. One horse was euthanatized after 9 days of treatment with a cast alone. Severely comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx in 13 horses were treated with an external skeletal fixation device, and fractures healed in 8 of those horses. Six horses with severely comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx were treated with transfixation pins incorporated into a fiberglass cast, and fractures healed in 4 horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Moderately comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx can be successfully repaired; however, fractures that are too severe to permit accurate reconstruction of the fragments remain difficult to treat and horses have only a fair prognosis for survival. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:254–263)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the pool-raft recovery system protocol and to evaluate the clinical outcome inhorses that underwent recovery from general anes-thesia using this system.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—393 horses that underwent recovery fromgeneral anesthesia in the pool-raft system.

Procedure—Anesthetic records were examined fromhorses recovered from anesthesia in the pool-raft sys-tem between January 1984 and December 2000.Complete medical records of horses were examinedwhen available. Information regarding the anestheticand recovery period was recorded. Horses first recov-ered from general anesthesia in the pool-raft and,once awake, were transported to a recovery stall andlowered to the floor in a standing position.

Results—351 horses underwent 1 pool-raft recovery,and 42 horses underwent multiple pool-raft recover-ies. Most horses were recovered from general anes-thesia within the pool-raft system to safeguard repairof a major orthopedic injury. During 471 pool-raftrecoveries, 34 (7%) horses had complications withinthe recovery pool and 62 (13%) had complicationswithin the recovery stall. Deaths resulted from complete failure of internal fixation, pulmonary dysfunc-tion, or a combination of pulmonary dysfunction andfixation failure in 2% (10/471) of horses that under-went pool-raft recoveries.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The pool-raftsystem is a good option for recovery from generalanesthesia. Although not a fail-safe system, itappears to decrease the complications of recoveringhorses in a high-risk category. Potential disadvan-tages of this system are added expense and man-power necessary in building, maintenance, andusage, as well as size limitations of the raft itself. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1014–1018)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association