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  • Author or Editor: Michael T. Kearney x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of measures assessed by radiography, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT of the hip joints of immature dogs with osteoarthritis in the same joints at maturity.

ANIMALS 46 hound-type dogs from a colony predisposed to osteoarthritis.

PROCEDURES Images of hip joints (1/dog) were obtained at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Radiographic measures included Norberg angle, distraction index, and osteoarthritis score. Two-dimensional CT measures included acetabular index, percentage of femoral head coverage, and center edge, horizontal toit externe, acetabular anteversion, and ventral, dorsal, and horizontal acetabular sector angles. Three-dimensional CT measures were femoral head and neck volume, femoral neck angle, and femoral head and neck radius. Differences among measures at 16 and 32 weeks in dogs with different osteoarthritis scores at later time points, relationships among variables at each time point, and relationships of single and combined measures with the presence of osteoarthritis at 104 weeks were evaluated.

RESULTS The 16- and 32-week distraction index, center edge angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, horizontal acetabular sector angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, acetabular index, and Norberg angle and the 32-week femoral neck angle varied significantly with osteoarthritis severity at 104 weeks. Presence of osteoarthritis in mature dogs was most strongly associated with 16-week combined measures of distraction index and center edge angle and 32-week combined measures of dorsal acetabular sector angle and Norberg angle.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Changes in hip joint morphology associated with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were detectable as early as 16 weeks of age and varied with osteoarthritis severity in adult dogs. The use of combined hip joint measures may improve early identification of dogs predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the relationship between prediction errors of a regression model of racing finish times and earnings or finish position; the relationship between standardized finish times, determined by use of this model, and earnings or finish position; and whether this model was valid when applied to data for horses that underwent surgical treatment.

Design—

Survey.

Sample Populatian—

Records of 6,700 healthy Thoroughbreds racing in Louisiana and of 31 Thoroughbreds with idiopathic left laryngeal hemiplegia that underwent surgical treatment.

Procedure—

Predicted and standardized finish times were calculated by use of the regression model for healthy horses, and the relationships between prediction error (actual – predicted finish time) and standardized finish times, and earnings and finish position, were examined. Then, the regression model was applied to data for horses with hemiplegia to determine whether the model was valid when used to calculate predicted and standardized finish times for lifetime performance data.

Results—

Prediction error and standardized finish times were negatively correlated with earnings and positively correlated with finish position and, thus, appeared to be reliable measures of racing performance. The regression model was found to be valid when applied to lifetime performance records of horses with laryngeal hemiplegia.

Clinical Implications—

Prediction error and standardized finish times are measures of racing performance that can be used to compare performances among Thoroughbred racehorses across a variety of circumstances that would otherwise confound comparison. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1641–1645)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effects of pentoxifylline on the gross and microscopic variables associated with immediate and late-phase inflammation following injection of IgE-specific antibodies in the skin of clinically normal dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Intradermal injections (0.1 mL each) of PBS solution, histamine phosphate, and cross-linking rabbit-origin anti-canine IgE antibodies (3 injections/dog) were administered at 0 hours on day 0; wheal sizes were evaluated at 20 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Biopsy specimens of injected and noninjected skin were collected 24 hours after injection. On day 2, treatment with pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) was initiated and continued until day 30. For each dog, injection, measurement, and biopsy procedures were repeated on days 30 to 31 and on days 37 to 38 (ie, after discontinuation of pentoxifylline administration).

Results—Pentoxifylline administration was associated with a significant decrease in wheal size at 6 and 24 hours (but not at 20 minutes) after injection of anti-canine IgE. Repeated injections performed 1 week after drug discontinuation revealed partial recovery of the 6-hour cutaneous reaction and complete recovery of the 24-hour cutaneous reaction. Pentoxifylline administration was also associated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation and significant decreases in the total numbers of cutaneous inflammatory cells and eosinophils, compared with pretreatment findings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In clinically normal dogs, pentoxifylline effectively impaired late-phase reactions but not immediate reactions at sites of intradermal injection of IgE-specific antibodies by inhibiting mast cell degranulation and recruitment of cutaneous inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedures—Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.

Results—Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in eyes of clinically normal Hispaniolan Amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with Schirmer tear test (STT) values.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—24 Amazona ventralis parrots from a research colony.

Procedures—On 4 occasions (1-week intervals), all birds underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes, which included (in sequence) performance of a PRTT and an STT; topical ocular application of proparacaine hydrochloride; and performance of another PRTT and another STT. Correlations between PRTT and STT values recorded with and without topical anesthesia were assessed.

Results—Without topical anesthesia, mean ± SD PRTT value was 12.5 ± 5.0 mm/15 s (range, 1 to 25 mm/15 s). With topical anesthesia, the PRTT value was 12.6 ± 5.4 mm/15 s (range, 2 to 24 mm/15 s). Without topical anesthesia, mean STT value was 7.9 ± 2.6 mm/min (range, 0 to 13 mm/min). With topical anesthesia, the STT value was 5.1 ± 3.3 mm/min (range, 0 to 18 mm/min). The correlation of PRTT and STT values recorded with or without topical anesthesia was weak (r = 0.51 and r = 0.32, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the PRTT and STT were both viable methods for measurement of tear production in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent did not have a significant effect on the PRTT values but significantly decreased the STT values.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A study was done to determine whether intra-articular pressure is increased in equine metacarpophalangeal joints with increasing degrees of synovial distention, and to correlate elastance of the soft tissue forming the dorsal pouch of the metacarpophalangeal joint to maximal range of motion in flexion. Sixty-seven metacarpophalangeal joints in 36 horses were categorized by palpation and visual inspection of the palmar pouch into 1 of 4 increasing grades of distention. Intra-articular pressures were then measured, using 2 pressure transducers attached to 22-gauge needles, from the dorsal and palmar pouches simultaneously while horses stood squarely under mild sedation. Intra-articular pressure ranged from −13 to +78 mm of Hg. Mean (± sem) palmar pouch pressure was subatmospheric (−2.53 ± 2.78 mm of Hg) in joints in which the palmar pouch was not discernible (grade 0), and was markedly increased (+37.13 ± 2.775 mm of Hg) in joints in which the palmar pouch was distended laterally beyond the lateral branch of the suspensory ligament (grade 3). Grade of distention was positively correlated with intra-articular pressure (r = 0.758; P < 0.001). Significant compartmentation (P < 0.002) was observed between the dorsal and palmar pouches in all horses. In 25 of the aforementioned horses (42 joints), which were active or retired Thoroughbred racehorses with variable degree of metacarpophalangeal joint injury/disease, a third needle was inserted into the dorsal pouch, and 0.5-ml increments of saline solution were added every 10 seconds to perform a pressure/volume (elastance) study of the dorsal pouch. The elastance study for each joint ended when leakage into the palmar pouch was detected by the pressure transducer placed in that region. A flexed lateral radiographic view was taken of each metacarpophalangeal joint in maximal flexion. The maximal angle of flexion was measured from the radiograph, and this angle was subtracted from 180° to acquire the range of motion in flexion. Range of motion in flexion has strong negative correlation (r = −0.68; P < 0.0001) with elastance (stiffness) of the dorsal pouch, and moderate negative correlation with the initial baseline pressure in the palmar (r = −0.47; P < 0.0015) and dorsal pouches (r = −0.48; P < 0.0001). To adjust for the possible correlations resulting from repeated measures on limbs within horses, a normal linear mixed model was used to assess the effect of limb (right vs left), range of motion in flexion, and volume of saline solution added on the dependent variable (Δ mm of Hg) in the elastance study. There was no significant limb effect, but a highly significant effect regarding volume of saline solution added (P < 0.00001) and range of motion in flexion (P < 0.00001). Loss of range of motion in flexion of this joint is associated with shortening or loss of the initial low elastance (flat) phase of the elastance profile. Measuring the elastance of the dorsal pouch or measuring maximal range of motion in flexion provides an objective measure of the degree of metacarpophalangeal joint stiffness secondary to joint disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effects of intra-articular administration of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) on the healing of full-thickness osteochondral defects and on normal cartilage were evaluated in 8 horses. In group-1 horses (n = 4), a 1-cm-diameter, full-thickness defect was created bilaterally in the articular cartilage on the dorsal distal surface of the radial carpal bone. Cartilage defects were not created in group-2 horses (n = 4). One middle carpal joint was randomly selected in each horse (groups 1 and 2), and treated with an intra-articular injection of 100 mg of mpa, once a week for 4 treatments. Injections began 1 week after surgery in group-1 horses. The contralateral middle carpal joint received intra-articular injections of an equivalent volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution (scs), and served as a control. Horses were evaluated for 16 weeks, then were euthanatized, and the middle carpal joints were examined and photographed. Synovial and articular cartilage specimens were obtained for histologic and histochemical evaluation.

Gross morphometric evaluation of the healing defects in group-1 horses revealed that 48.6% of the defect in control joints and 0% of the defect in mpa-treated joints was resurfaced with a smooth, white tissue, histologically confirmed as fibrocartilage. This replacement tissue was a firmly attached fibrocartilage in control joints and a thin fibrous tissue in mpa-treated joints. The articular cartilage in joints treated with mpa had morphologic changes, including chondrocyte cluster formation, loss of palisading architecture, and cellular necrosis in both groups of horses. Histochemical (safranin-0) staining intensity was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in all layers of articular cartilage in mpa-treated joints in groups 1 and 2. In the replacement tissue, intense safranin-0 staining was found only in the chondrocyte clusters deep in the tissue of control joints, confirming fibrocartilage repair. Intra-articular administration of mpa in this dosing regimen thus induced degenerative changes in normal articular cartilage and resulted in histomorphologic changes in the repair of full-thickness articular osteochondral defects in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To evaluate renal function and obtain reference values for measurements of urinary excretion of various substances, quantitative urinalysis was performed in healthy, growing kittens from 4 to 30 weeks after birth. Endogenous creatinine clearance, 24-hour urine protein excretion, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio were determined. Additionally, fractional excretion to creatinine clearance was calculated for calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Mean ± SD endogenous creatinine clearance values (range, 3.80 ± 0.48 to 4.74 ± 0.61 ml/min/kg) were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in kittens 9 to 19 weeks old, compared with younger (range, 1.39 ± 0.85 to 3.59 ± 0.86 ml/min/kg) and older kittens (range, 2.69 ± 0.40 to 3.46 ± 0.37 ml/min/kg). Mean values for all kittens for 24-hour urine protein excretion (range, 2.54 ± 1.81 mg/kg at 4 weeks to 11.39 ± 7.61 mg/kg at 14 weeks) and for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (range, 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.34 ± 0.18) varied from week to week of age. The urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in kittens > 9 weeks old correlated well (R2 = 0.861) with 24-hour urine protein excretion. Urinary fractional excretion of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride in kittens varied among age groups, being significantly (P < 0.01) different for potassium and calcium in young kittens (4 to 6 weeks) and older kittens (≥ 7 weeks).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research