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  • Author or Editor: Michael T. Doornink x
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Objective—To investigate factors influencing screw loosening after triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) and ischial wire stabilization of the acetabular segment.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—227 dogs with congenital hip dysplasia or subluxated hip joints.

Procedures—Medical records and radiographs of 227 dogs that underwent 332 TPO procedures were evaluated, and data pertaining to screw type, plate position, sacral screw engagement, use of ischial interfragmentary wires, and pelvic alignment were assessed for associations with screw loosening.

Results—Complications developed in 96 of the 332 (29%) procedures. Cancellous screws without sacral engagement were associated with the lowest frequency (6%) of loosening, compared with cancellous and cortical screws engaging the sacrum and cortical screws that did not engage the sacrum. Frequency of screw loosening increased when cortical or cancellous screws engaged the sacrum and when cortical screws were used. In dogs that had surgery bilaterally, the first limb on which TPO was performed had a higher frequency of screw loosening than the second limb. Pelvic alignment loss was greatest (5.4°) when the 3 most cranial screws were loosened. Loss of pelvic alignment was significantly different between dogs that underwent surgery and had complications and those that underwent surgery and did not have complications in association with loosening of 1, 2, and 3 screws.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TPO screw loosening was multifactorial and related to stability of the affected ilium, screw type, and screw position. Placing cancellous screws that do not engage the sacrum in pelvic osteotomy plate positions 1 through 3 may decrease the number of screws that loosen.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To retrospectively evaluate safety and tolerance of leflunomide for long-term treatment of canine idiopathic immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA).


27 dogs with clinical signs and synovial fluid cytology supportive of IMPA with ≥ 6 months’ follow-up after starting leflunomide.


Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs prescribed leflunomide for treatment of IMPA from February 2012 to May 2022. Initial leflunomide doses of 2 to 4 mg/kg once daily were prescribed and were titrated to the lowest effective dose with concurrent anti-inflammatory therapy. Complete blood count, serum chemistry, and clinical signs were monitored throughout the course of treatment.


Adverse effects potentially attributable to leflunomide noted in 9 of 27 dogs (33%) included vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, decreased or absent appetite, polyuria and polydipsia, and secondary antibiotic responsive infection and were self-limiting or resolved with outpatient therapy. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation were documented in all dogs prescribed leflunomide plus prednisone, with persistent liver enzyme elevation in 6 of 9 dogs (67%) and normalization after antibiotic therapy in 3 of 9 dogs (33%). The majority of dogs prescribed leflunomide plus NSAID (11/17 [65%] dogs) did not experience liver enzyme elevation; 2 of 17 (12%) dogs developed transient antibiotic-responsive liver enzyme elevations, and 4 of 17 (23%) dogs had persistent liver enzyme elevation.


Leflunomide was well tolerated for long-term management of IMPA. A significant difference in liver enzyme elevation was identified between dogs prescribed prednisone versus NSAID in combination with leflunomide. Leflunomide with NSAID therapy resulted in less hepatotoxicity compared with leflunomide with prednisone.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association