Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Michael Singer x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine, in a population of young horses, whether a variation exists among neonates, sucklings, weanlings, and yearlings regarding recovery from anesthesia, short- and long-term survival rates, and postoperative adhesion formation following exploratory laparotomy.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

102 horses < 25 months old that underwent exploratory laparotomy.

Procedure

Pre-, intra-, and postoperative information was retrieved from medical records, conversations with referring veterinarians, owners, or trainers, and race records. Survival rates (recovery from anesthesia and short- and long-term survival) were compared with age, lesion type, lesion location, surgical procedure, and development of clinically important postoperative intestinal adhesions.

Results

Of the 73 horses that recovered from anesthesia, 69 were available for follow-up. Of the 69 horses, 7 (10%) died of complications associated with formation of intestinal adhesions. Age did not affect incidence of adhesion formation, lesion type, lesion location, or surgical procedure performed. Long-term survival rate after surgery for correction of a small-intestinal lesion was 34%, whereas that after surgery for correction of a large-intestinal lesion was 65%.

Clinical Implications

Surgical treatment of colic in young horses resulted in survival rates that are similar to those reported for mature horses. The incidence of clinically important postoperative adhesions was greater than that found for young horses in earlier studies. This may be the result of the younger age of our study population. Alternatively, improvements in operative techniques and postoperative management may allow a larger percentage of horses to survive long term and develop complications such as adhesion formation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1158–1162)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against the serogroup of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) and describe spatial distribution of antibodies against EHDV among cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana.

Sample Population—9,414 serum samples collected from cattle in 60 herds over 3 transmission seasons.

Procedures—Serum samples were tested for antibodies against EHDV by use of an ELISA. Seroprevalence for 4 zones covering the length of Illinois and parts of Indiana were estimated. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random effect for herd was used to estimate seropositive risk for zone (1 through 4), age (yearling, adult), herd type (beef, dairy), transmission season (2000 to 2002), and zone by year interaction. Isopleth maps of seroprevalence at the herd level were produced.

Results—Antibodies against EHDV were detected in 1,110 (11.8%) samples. Estimated seroprevalence in 2000, 2001, and 2002 was 15.3%, 13.4%, and 5.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence was highest in the southernmost zone and lowest in the northernmost zone, but risk of seropositivity for EHDV among and within zones varied by year. Clusters of high seroprevalence in the south, low seroprevalence in the north, and outliers of high and low seroprevalence were detected. Risk mapping revealed areas of higher seroprevalence extending northward along the western and eastern ends of the study region.

Conclusions—Seroprevalence of antibodies against EHDV in cattle was higher in the south than north; however, local complexities existed that were not observed in a serosurvey of antibodies against bluetongue virus from the same cattle population.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the geographic distribution of seropositive cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana.

Sample Population—10,585 serum samples obtained from cattle in 60 herds during 3 transmission seasons (2000 through 2002).

Procedures—In a longitudinal study, serum samples were tested for BTV antibodies by use of a competitive ELISA. Four geographic zones were created by use of mean minimum January temperature. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random effect for herd was used to estimate seropositive risk for zone, age of cattle, herd type, and transmission season.

Results—Overall, BTV antibodies were detected in 156 (1.5%) samples. Estimated seroprevalence in 2000, 2001, and 2002 was 1.49%, 0.97%, and 2.18%, respectively. Risk of being seropositive for BTV was associated with geographic zone and age. Seroprevalence increased progressively from northern to southern zones, with no evidence of BTV infection in the northernmost zone. In the southernmost zone, annual seroprevalence ranged from 8.65% to 11.00%. Adult cattle were 2.35 times as likely as juvenile cattle to be seropositive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overall seroprevalence was lower than has been reported for Illinois cattle. Bluetongue virus antibodies were distributed heterogeneously in this region. Only in the southernmost zone was seroprevalence consistently > 2%. Regionalization of BTV risk based on state borders does not account for such variability. Serologic data could be combined with landscape, climate, and vector data to develop predictive models of BTV risk within transitional regions of the United States.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association