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  • Author or Editor: Michael Rings x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether 2 isolates of recently isolated swine-origin Helicobacter pylori-like bacteria are pathogenic in pigs and compare the signs of gastric disease induced by these isolates with those detected in H pylori- and Helicobacter heilmannii-in fected pigs.

Animals—36 neonatal gnotobiotic pigs.

Procedure—Groups of separately housed pigs were inoculated orally with swine-origin Helicobacter-like isolates 2662 or 1268, H pylori (human gastric pathogen), or a gastric homogenate from gnotobiotic swine containing H heilmannii. Noninoculated pigs were used as control animals. Clinical signs and development of homologous and heterologous antibodies against Helicobacter organisms were assessed. After euthanasia, gastric tissues were examined grossly and microscopically; Helicobacter organisms were detected by use of Warthin-Starry and immunohistochemical stains.

Results—Both porcine Helicobacter-like isolates colonized the stomachs of swine. Isolate 2662 was highly pathogenic; in 13 isolate 2662-inoculated pigs, gastroesophageal ulcerations developed in 9 and ulceration of the gastric glandular mucosa was detected in 5. Histologically, inflammatory gastritis consisting of multifocal to diffuse lymphocytic and plasmacytic cellular infiltrates and lymphoid follicle formation in the gastric lamina propria accompanied bacterial colonization of the gastric compartment. In contrast, H heilmannii was minimally pathogenic in that only modest inflammatory cell infiltrates were seen. Gastroesophageal or mucosal ulcers were not evident in pigs inoculated with H heilmannii.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data indicate that swine-origin H pylori-like bacteria can be pathogenic in pigs and suggest that porcine gastric disease may be mediated, in part, by colonization of the stomach by swine-origin H pylori-like bacteria. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:945–952)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the insulin response curve during IV glucose tolerance testing of mature Holstein bulls.

Animals—8 Holstein bulls between 5 and 8 years old and weighing between 911.5 and 1035.5 kg.

Procedure—A 50% glucose solution was rapidly administered IV so that each bull received a mean dose of 258 mg of glucose/kg of body weight. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were determined before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after glucose infusion.

Results—Serum glucose concentrations 30 and 60 minutes after infusion were significantly greater than baseline concentration. Concentrations returned to baseline values 120 minutes after infusion. Serum insulin concentration was significantly greater 30 minutes after glucose administration, compared with baseline and 240-minute concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intravenous glucose tolerance testing of mature Holstein bulls resulted in a characteristic insulin response curve. Baseline and peak insulin concentrations were higher in these bulls, compared with values reported for mature Norwegian Red cows. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:61–63)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) could be experimentally induced in gnotobiotic swine.

Sample Population—Plasma samples from 27 sows and 20 conventional weaned piglets were obtained, and 30 gnotobiotic pigs were used in experiments.

Procedures—3 experiments were conducted. Groups of 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with pooled plasma samples obtained from healthy feeder pigs in a herd that was in the initial phases of an outbreak of respiratory disease; gross and histologic lesions of PDNS were detected in the inoculated pigs. In a second experiment, 2- and 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and with PRRSV-negative tissue homogenate containing genogroup 1 torque teno virus (g1-TTV). Lesions of PDNS were detected.

Results—Pigs inoculated with pooled plasma or the combination of tissue-culture–origin PRRSV and g1-TTV tissue homogenate developed systemic hemostatic defects, bilaterally symmetric cutaneous hemorrhages, generalized edema, icterus, bilaterally symmetric renal cortical hemorrhage, dermal vasculitis with hemorrhage, and interstitial pneumonia consistent with a clinical and pathologic diagnosis of PDNS. The PRRSV RNAs and g1-TTV DNAs were detected in plasma; all pigs seroconverted to PRRSV, and all had negative results for porcine circovirus type 2 when tested by use of PCR assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that PDNS is a manifestation of disseminated intravascular coagulation in swine. For the experimental conditions reported here, combined infection with g1-TTV and PRRSV was implicated in the genesis of these lesions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterins sold for use in swine contain porcine torque teno virus (TTV).

Sample Population—22 commercially available M hyopneumoniae bacterins.

Procedures—Direct and nested PCR assays for genogroup-specific TTV DNAs were performed on serials of M hyopneumoniae bacterins by use of published and custom-designed primer pairs at 3 laboratories in North America and Europe.

Results—Of the 22 bacterins tested by use of direct and nested PCR assays, 7 of 9 from the United States, 2 of 5 from Canada, and 4 of 8 from Europe contained genogroup 1– and genogroup 2–TTV DNAs. In some bacterins, the TTV DNAs were readily detected by use of direct PCR assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these data indicated that many of the commercially available M hyopneumoniae bacterins were contaminated with TTV DNA. It is possible that some of these bacterins could inadvertently transmit porcine TTV infection to TTV-naïve swine.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—An 11-year-old 72-kg (158-lb) sexually intact female alpaca was examined for diagnosis and treatment of hematuria of 4 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Pigmenturia was detected by the owner when the alpaca was 8 months pregnant. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, vaginal speculum, and cystoscopic evaluation of the urinary tract revealed normal vaginal and urethral epithelia and increased bladder vessel tortuosity, with pulses of hemorrhage from the left ureter. Regenerative anemia and mild leukopenia were detected and serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were within reference ranges.

Treatment and Outcome—Chronic hematuria resolved after unilateral nephrectomy of the left kidney, and no dysfunction was detected in the remaining kidney. Histologic evaluation of the kidney revealed a transitional cell tumor in the renal pelvis.

Clinical Relevance—Although anemia is common in South American camelids, hematuria is an uncommon sign of this condition. Chronic urinary tract infection, toxin ingestion, and neoplasia causing hematuria or hemoglobinuria should be considered in South American camelids with pigmenturia. Thorough and systematic evaluation of the urinary tract should be performed to locate the site of hemorrhage to treat hematuria appropriately.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association