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  • Author or Editor: Michael R. Marshall x
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Reciprocal embryo transfers were made between scrapie-inoculated and scrapie-free sheep (Cheviot and Suffolk breeds) to measure scrapie transmission via the embryo (using offspring from embryos of scrapie-inoculated donors and scrapie-free recipients) and via the uterus (using offspring from embryos of scrapie-free donors and scrapie-inoculated recipients taken by cesarean section). Two control groups of offspring, 1 from scrapie-free parents (negative) and 1 from scrapie-inoculated parents (positive), also were included. All sheep were observed for clinical signs of scrapie until death or for a minimum of 60 months. Final diagnosis was made on the basis of histopathologic findings or results of mouse inoculation and/or proteinase-K-resistant protein analysis. Thirty to 61% of the scrapie-inoculated donor/recipient sheep within groups developed scrapie within 8 to 44 months after inoculation. None of the scrapie-free donor/recipients, including those gestating embryos from scrapie-inoculated donors, developed scrapie. Also, none of the offspring observed to ≥ 24 months of age from reciprocal cross, via embryo (0/67), or via the uterus (0/25), or from the negative-control group (0/33) developed scrapie. Fifty-six of the offspring via embryo, 19 of these via the uterus, and 31 negative controls survived to ≥ 60 months of age. Of the 21 sheep in the positive-control group, 2 (9.5%) developed scrapie, 1 at 31 months of age and 1 at 42 months of age. In the Cheviot offspring, the percentage of sheep carrying the short incubation allele ranged from 24 to 44% and the percentage in the Suffolk offspring ranged from 61 to 83%. These proportions indicate high degree of susceptibility to the disease. Results indicate that under the conditions of these experiments, scrapie was not transmitted to the offspring via the embryo or the uterus.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association