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  • Author or Editor: Michael Piontkowski x
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Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available bacterin-toxoid vaccine for preventing Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis-induced abscesses in sheep.

Design

Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals

31 mixed-breed sheep seronegative for C pseudotuberculosis.

Procedure

Sheep were randomly assigned to vaccinate (n = 20) or nonvaccinate (11; control) groups. Sheep in the vaccinate group received 2 doses of serial A or serial B bacterin-toxoid vaccine at 4-week intervals. Serologic testing was conducted after vaccination to document an antibody response to vaccination. All sheep were challenge inoculated with virulent C pseudotuberculosis organisms 32 weeks after the second vaccination. Twenty weeks after challenge inoculation, all sheep were examined for external and internal abscesses secondary to C pseudotuberculosis infection.

Results

Vaccinated sheep developed an antibody response to both components of the vaccine, as measured by use of ELISA tests. After challenge inoculation, vaccinated sheep had significantly less external, internal, and total abscesses than control sheep.

Clinical Implications

Vaccination of sheep with a commercially available bacterin-toxoid against C pseudotuberculosis could substantially decrease the prevalence and number of abscesses that form secondary to C pseudotuberculosis infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1765–1768)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effectiveness of canine parvovirus monoclonal antibody (CPMA) as a treatment against canine parvovirus (CPV-2)–induced mortality and to support USDA product licensure.

ANIMALS

28 purpose-bred Beagle dogs aged 8 weeks were randomized to the treated (n = 21) or control (7) group.

METHODS

Dogs were challenged intranasally with 104.2 TCID50 virulent CPV-2b on Day 0 and monitored for 14 days for fecal viral shed and clinical disease. All dogs began shedding CPV-2 on Day 4 and were treated intravenously with a single dose of either CPMA (0.2 mL/kg) or saline (equal volume). No additional treatments were given to either group. Feces and sera were collected for quantitative analysis of fecal viral shed (hemagglutination) and antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition and dot-blot ELISA), respectively. Dogs were monitored twice daily for parameters including lymphopenia, fever, vomiting, abnormal feces, inappetence, and lethargy. Humane endpoints triggered euthanasia by a veterinarian masked to treatment groups. The primary outcome variable was prevention of mortality as compared to controls.

RESULTS

Mortality was prevented in all CPMA-treated dogs compared to 57% mortality in the control group (P = .0017, Fisher exact test). Canine parvovirus monoclonal antibody–treated dogs also experienced less severe and/or shorter durations of diarrhea, fever, vomiting, CPV-2 shedding in feces, and lymphopenia. Both groups showed similar immunoglobulin M responses as measured by semiquantitative analysis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intravenous administration of CPMA can effectively improve clinical outcome when administered early in CPV-2 disease. Canine parvovirus monoclonal antibody treatment after proven infection does not interfere with adaptive immunity.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association