Objective—To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features correlated with histologic diagnosis in dogs with nasal disease.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—78 dogs undergoing MRI for evaluation of nasal disease.
Procedures—Medical records and MRI reports of dogs were reviewed to identify MRI features associated with histologic diagnosis. Features evaluated were presence of a mass effect, frontal sinus involvement, sphenoid sinus involvement, maxillary recess involvement, nasopharyngeal infiltration by soft tissue, nasal turbinate destruction, vomer bone lysis, paranasal bone destruction, cribriform plate erosion, and lesion extent (ie, unilateral vs bilateral).
Results—33 dogs had neoplastic disease, 38 had inflammatory rhinitis, and 7 had fungal rhinitis. Lesion extent was not significantly associated with histologic diagnosis. Absence of a mass effect was significantly associated with inflammatory disease. However, presence of a mass was not specific for neoplasia. In dogs with evidence of a mass on magnetic resonance (MR) images, nasal turbinate destruction, frontal sinus invasion, and maxillary recess invasion were not useful in distinguishing neoplastic from nonneoplastic disease, but cribriform plate erosion, vomer bone lysis, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion, and nasopharyngeal invasion were.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with nasal disease, the lack of a mass effect on MR images was significantly associated with inflammatory disease. In dogs with a mass effect on MR images, vomer bone lysis, cribriform plate erosion, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion by a mass, and nasopharyngeal invasion by a mass were significantly associated with a diagnosis of neoplasia.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures on the biomechanical behavior of the C5-C6 vertebral motion unit (VMU) in dogs.
SAMPLE 14 vertebral columns (C4 through C7) from canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were assigned to a conventional or slanted ventral slot group (n = 7/group). For each specimen, the C5-C6 VMU was tested in ventral and dorsal bending and positive and negative axial torsion before and after surgery. Range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and energy absorption were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS Both procedures significantly increased the ROM and stiffness and significantly decreased the energy absorption of the C5-C6 VMU in ventral and dorsal bending. Both procedures also increased the ROM in positive and negative axial torsion. In negative torsion, total stiffness and stiffness over the maximum ROM tested decreased less for the slanted slot procedure than for the conventional slot procedure. There were no significant differences between procedures for any of the other biomechanical outcomes examined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the biomechanical response of the C5-C6 VMU to the conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures was not significantly different, especially when considering postsurgical instability induced by both procedures. This was most likely due to disruption of the nucleus pulposus and dorsal annulus fibrosus of the disk with both procedures. On the basis of these findings, neither procedure appeared biomechanically superior. Comparative clinical studies are warranted to further evaluate the 2 procedures.
Objective—To determine incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—3,587 ferrets that received a rabies or distemper vaccine between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003.
Procedures—Electronic medical records were searched for possible vaccine-associated adverse events. Adverse events were classified by attending veterinarians as nonspecific vaccine reactions, allergic reactions, or anaphylaxis. Patient information that was collected included age, weight, sex, cumulative number of distemper and rabies vaccinations received, clinical signs, and treatment. The association between potential risk factors and occurrence of an adverse event was estimated with logistic regression.
Results—30 adverse events were recorded. The adverse event incidence rates for administration of rabies vaccine alone, distemper vaccine alone, and rabies and distemper vaccines together were 0.51%, 1.00%, and 0.85%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different. All adverse events occurred immediately following vaccine administration and most commonly consisted of vomiting and diarrhea (52%) or vomiting alone (31%). Age, sex, and body weight were not significantly associated with occurrence
of adverse events, but adverse event incidence rate increased as the cumulative number of distemper or rabies vaccinations received increased. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the cumulative number of distemper vaccinations received was significantly associated with the occurrence of an adverse event.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in ferrets, the risk of vaccine-associated adverse events was primarily associated with an increase in the number of distemper vaccinations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:909–912)
Objective—To describe an outbreak of encephalomyelitis
caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in
Procedure—Horses with clinical signs suggestive of
encephalomyelitis caused by WNV were examined.
Date, age, sex, breed, and survival status were recorded.
Serum samples were tested for anti-WNV antibodies,
and virus isolation was attempted from samples of
brain tissue. Climate data from local weather recording
stations were collected. An epidemic curve was constructed,
and case fatality rate was calculated.
Results—The most common clinical signs were ataxia,
hind limb paresis, and muscle tremors and fasciculations.
Eight horses had been vaccinated against WNV from 2 to
21 days prior to the appearance of clinical signs. West
Nile virus was isolated from brain tissue of 2 nonvaccinated
horses, and anti-WNV IgM antibodies were detected
in 132 nonvaccinated horses; in 2 other nonvaccinated
horses, anti-WNV antibodies were detected and WNV
was also isolated from brain tissue. Thirty-one (22.8%)
horses died or were euthanatized. The peak of the outbreak
occurred on September 6, 2002. Ambient temperatures
were significantly lower after the peak of the outbreak,
compared with prior to the peak.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The peak risk
period for encephalomyelitis caused by WNV in northern
Indiana was mid-August to mid-September. Reduction in
cases coincided with decreasing ambient temperatures.
Because of a substantial case fatality rate, owners of
horses in northern Indiana should have their horses fully
protected by vaccination against WNV before June. In
other regions of the United States with a defined mosquito
breeding season, vaccination of previously nonvaccinated
horses should commence at least 4 months
before the anticipated peak in seasonal mosquito numbers,
and for previously vaccinated horses, vaccine
should be administered no later than 2 months before
this time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:84–89)
Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential
risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events
(VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary
Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002,
through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible
VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic
reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3
days of vaccine administration. Information included
age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific
clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random
sample of 400 affected dogs. The association
between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated
by use of multivariate logistic regression.
Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs
vaccinated) were associated with administration of
3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The
VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight
increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered
versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater
for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9
months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased
as the number of vaccine doses administered per
office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly
increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in
dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult
small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines
per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE
within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors
should be considered in risk assessment and risk
communication with clients regarding vaccination.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)