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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare malignancy rates of canine mammary gland tumors diagnosed incidentally and nonincidentally.

ANIMALS

96 female dogs from which mammary gland tumors were removed.

METHODS

Medical records of all female dogs from which mammary gland tumors were removed at a privately owned referral institution between 2018 and 2021 were reviewed. Data were obtained on signalment for each dog, histopathologic results for each tumor, and the primary reason for each dog’s presentation to the hospital. The proportion of malignant tumors was compared between dogs that were presented with nonincidental MGTs and dogs that were presented for a different primary condition and had incidental MGTs found on examination.

RESULTS

A total of 195 tumors were removed from the 96 dogs in this study. In dogs with incidental MGTs, 82 of 88 (93%) tumors were benign and 6 of 88 (7%) were malignant. In dogs with nonincidental MGTs, 75 of 107 (70%) tumors were benign and 32 of 107 (30%) were malignant. Nonincidental MGTs were significantly (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 2.31 to 14.73; P = .001) more likely to be malignant compared with incidental MGTs. Dogs with nonincidental MGTs were 6.84 times as likely to have a malignant MGT removed compared with dogs with incidental MGTs (OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 2.47 to 18.94; P < .001). The likelihood of malignancy increased by 5% for each 1-kg increase in body weight (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09; P = .013). Larger tumors were more likely to be malignant than smaller tumors (P = .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Most incidentally diagnosed MGTs are benign and allow for a good prognosis after excision. Small dogs and dogs with MGTs < 3 cm in diameter are the least likely to have a malignancy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection among shelter cats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—239 cats euthanatized at an animal shelter in southeastern Michigan.

Procedure—A gross necropsy focusing on the thoracic cavity, heart, lungs, and pulmonary vessels was performed within 5 hours after cats were euthanatized. Blood was collected directly from the heart of cats found to be infected and tested, using a filter test for microfilariae. Serum was tested for D immitis antigens by use of 2 antigen detection kits and for D immitis-specific antibodies by use of 2 antibody detection kits.

Results—Cats ranged from approximately 4 months to 15 years old. Adult D immitis were found in 6 (2.5%) cats. Blood could not be recovered from 1 of the cats with heartworm infection. For the 5 other cats, results of the filter test were negative, and results of both antigen and both antibody tests were positive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats living in an urban area in the northern part of the United States have a low prevalence of adult D immitis infection. However, this is likely to be an underestimate of the true prevalence of infection, because no attempts were made to identify cats infected with larval or juvenile stages of D immitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:211–212)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, diagnostic findings, tissue tremetone concentrations, and clinical outcome or postmortem findings in horses evaluated for acute severe nonexertional rhabdomyolysis initially attributed to white snakeroot toxicosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—14 horses.

Procedures—Records of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center or Diagnostic Laboratory were searched from 1998 to 2005. Inclusion criteria included serum creatine kinase (CK) activity > 45,000 U/L, severe nonexertional myonecrosis of proximal postural muscles at necropsy, or signs of weakness without palpably firm muscles on physical examination. Vitamin E and selenium concentrations were measured in 6 horses; tremetone concentration was measured in 7.

Results—Clinical signs occurred during unfavorable weather conditions. Clinical signs of generalized weakness (n = 11 horses), muscle fasciculations (10), lethargy (6), and prolonged recumbency (4) were common. Serum CK activity ranged from 46,487 to 959,499 U/L (reference range, 82 to 449 U/L), and aspartate transaminase activity was > 1,500 U/L (reference range, 162 to 316 U/L). Two horses survived with aggressive antioxidant and fluid treatment. Postmortem examination revealed acute severe myonecrosis with lipid accumulation primarily in neck, proximal forelimb and hind limb, intercostal, and diaphragm muscles. Histopathologic signs of myocardial necrosis were detected in 7 horses. Vitamin E and selenium concentrations were within reference limits. Tremetone was not detected in liver or urine samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cases of rhabdomyolysis have been attributed to white snakeroot toxicosis; however, tremetone was not detected in any horses. Similarities exist between cases of seasonal pasture myopathy and cases of atypical myopathy in Europe.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association