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  • Author or Editor: Michael L. Kent x
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Objective—To determine expression of microRNA (miRNA) in urinary bladder samples obtained from dogs with grossly normal urinary bladders, inflammatory bladder disease, or transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and in cells of established canine TCC cell lines.

Sample—Samples of grossly normal bladders (n = 4) and bladders from dogs with inflammatory bladder disease (13) or TCC (18), and cells of 5 established canine TCC cell lines.

Procedures—Expression of 5 miRNAs (miR-34a, let-7c, miR-16, miR-103b, and miR-106b) that target p53, Rb, or Bcl-2 protein pathways was determined for bladder samples and cells via quantitative real-time PCR assay. Effects of cisplatin (5μM) on proliferation and miRNA expression of cells were determined.

Results—Expression of miR-34a and miR-106b was significantly higher in TCC samples than it was in samples of grossly normal bladders. Expression of miR-34a, miR-16, miR-103b, and miR-106b was higher in TCC samples than it was in bladder samples from dogs with inflammatory bladder disease. Cells of established canine TCC cell lines that had the lowest growth after cisplatin treatment had increased miR-34a expression after such treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings of this study indicated results of miRNA expression assays can be used to distinguish between samples of grossly normal bladders and bladders of dogs with inflammatory bladder disease or TCC. This finding may have clinical relevance because currently available diagnostic tests cannot be used to differentiate these tissues, and inflammatory bladder disease and TCC are both prevalent in dogs. Validation of miRNA expression assays as diagnostic tests may be warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and scintigraphic abnormalities in and treatment and outcome of horses with trauma-induced osteomyelitis of the proximal aspect of the radius.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 horses.

Procedure—Data collected from the medical records included signalment; history; horse use; degree of lameness; radiographic, ultrasonographic, and scintigraphic findings; treatment; and outcome.

Results—Duration of lameness prior to referral ranged from 14 to 60 days. Mean severity of lameness was grade 3 of 5, and all horses had a single limb affected. All horses had signs of pain during elbow joint manipulation and digital palpation over the lateral aspect of the proximal end of the radius. Radiographic lesions consisted of periosteal proliferation, osteolysis, and subchondral bone lysis. Scintigraphy in 3 horses revealed intense pharmaceutical uptake diffusely involving the proximal end of the radius. Two horses had sepsis of the elbow joint. All horses were treated with antimicrobials long-term; 1 horse was also treated by local perfusion of the radial medullary cavity through an indwelling cannulated screw. At follow-up, all horses had returned to their previous function.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that osteomyelitis of the proximal end of the radius can result from a traumatic injury to the antebrachium. Because lesions may be an extension of septic arthritis, a thorough examination of the wound area and elbow joint is recommended. Prolonged systemic antimicrobial treatment can result in a successful outcome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:486–491)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



3 dogs were examined because of a sudden onset of signs of pain (1 dog) or paraparesis (2 dogs).


Neurologic findings consisted of myelopathy affecting the lumbar intumescence (1 dog) and T3-L3 myelopathy (2 dogs). In all dogs, MRI revealed spinal cord compression caused by L3-4 disk herniation. All dogs underwent routine surgical decompression of the intervertebral disk herniation. During MRI and decompressive surgery, physiologic variables were monitored. Immediately after surgery, all dogs were paraplegic with pelvic limb neurologic dysfunction consistent with myelopathy affecting the L4 through caudal spinal cord segments.


Within 24 hours after surgery, repeated MRI in all dogs revealed hyperintensity in the spinal cord gray matter of the lumbar intumescence on T2-weighted images. In the absence of neurologic improvement, dogs were euthanized at 3, 91, and 34 days after surgery. Postmortem microscopic examination of each dog's spinal cord at the lumbar intumescence revealed necrosis of the gray matter with relative white matter preservation suggestive of an ischemic injury.


Dramatic neurologic deterioration following decompressive surgery for intervertebral disk herniation in dogs may be associated with the development of poliomyelomalacia secondary to ischemia. In these 3 dogs, ischemia developed despite probable maintenance of normal spinal cord blood flow and perfusion during anesthesia. To exclude other causes, such as compression or hemorrhage, MRI was repeated and revealed hyperintensity of the spinal cord gray matter on T2-weighted images, which microscopically corresponded with ischemic neurons and neuronal loss.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs.


20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017.


In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared.


Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%).


Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association