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  • Author or Editor: Michael L. Huber x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Epidural analgesia was achieved at weekly intervals in 6 adults llamas by injection of 2% lidocaine, 10% xylazine, and a combination of 2% lidocaine/10% xylazine at the sacrococcygeal junction. Analgesia was determined by lack of response to pin prick or hemostat pressure in the perineal area. Ataxia could not be accurately evaluated because of the llamas’ tendency to assume sternal recumbency when restrained. Time to onset of analgesia was not different between lidocaine (3.16 ± 0.31 minutes) and lidocaine/xylazine (3.50 ± 0.56 minutes), but results for both groups were different than those for xylazine (20.67 ± 3.37 minutes). Duration of analgesia was different among all groups (lidocaine, 71.0 ± 6.15 minutes; xylazine, 186.83 ± 14.86 minutes; lidocaine/xylazine, 325.83 ± 29.39 minutes). Mild sedation developed in 4 llamas given xylazine alone. Lidocaine/xylazine caused mild sedation in 2 llamas and moderate sedation in 1 llama. Significant changes in pulse or respiratory rates were not observed among drugs, but changes were observed over time with all drugs. As has been reported in other species, lidocaine/xylazine provided rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 5-year-old castrated male Nigerian Dwarf goat with recurrent urethral obstruction after perineal urethrostomy.

Clinical Findings—The wether goat was referred for evaluation of a perineal urethrostomy site; perineal urethrostomy had been performed 1.5 years earlier. The site was patent, but a moderate stricture was found just cranial to the perineal urethrostomy site. The goat had obstructed urine flow at the stricture site repeatedly in the previous few months.

Treatment and Outcome—Laparoscopically assisted urinary bladder marsupialization was recommended. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anesthesia in dorsal recumbency; food had been withheld for 36 hours prior to anesthesia. Ventral midline and left caudal paramedian portals were made for the laparoscopic camera and instruments. A larger incision in the right caudal paramedian portion of the abdomen was used to create the marsupialization stoma. Laparoscopic observation of anatomic structures within the abdomen was excellent. The goat recovered well from surgery and was discharged the day following surgery. Follow-up examinations were done every few months after surgery, and dermatitis of the abdominal skin secondary to urine scald was the only postoperative complication. At 9 months of follow-up, the goat continued to pass urine through the marsupialization site comfortably.

Clinical Relevance—In the goat of this report, laparoscopic urinary bladder marsupialization was a minimally invasive procedure with minimal signs of postoperative pain. The procedure was simple to perform and should be considered as an alternative to marsupialization via laparotomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess the accuracy of current antemortem and postmortem techniques for determining tracheal luminal stenosis.


15 dogs.


Percentage of tracheal luminal stenosis (PTLS) was determined by 6 methods, using measurements obtained by radiography, tracheoscopy, and necropsy after selected tracheostomy techniques were performed. To calculate PTLS, dorsoventral tracheal diameter was measured from preoperative and postoperative lateral cervical radiographic views. Preoperative or normal tracheal segments adjacent to the stenotic area were used to obtain normal tracheal diameter measurements. Planimetrically determined cross-sectional area (CSA), obtained from pre- and postoperative tracheoscopic photographs, was used to calculate PTLS. The CSA of tracheal specimens obtained at necropsy was determined, using the formula for an ellipse. Percentage of luminal stenosis was calculated, using CSA of the stenotic site and of segments craniad and caudad to the site obtained at necropsy or at surgery. All methods were compared with the control method of planimetrically determined CSA of sections obtained at necropsy of the tracheostomy and segments craniad and caudad to the site.


Correlation was poor for radiographic and tracheoscopic techniques (r = 0.146 to 0.458, P > 0.05) The formula for an ellipse accurately predicted PTLS when measurements obtained at surgery (r = 0.516, P = 0.049) or segments craniad and caudad (r = 0.853, P < 0.001) to the site were used.


Antemortem methods of assessing PTLS did not correlate with control planimetric methods. Methods using CSA determined by tracheal diameter were weakly correlated to control planimetric techniques.

Clinical Relevance

Accurate measurement of the degree of tracheal stenosis cannot be made in clinical patients using current techniques. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1051–1054)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association