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Summary

Pepsinogen and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples, collected from the left gastroepiploic artery and vein, and in abomasal lymph from 15 steers naturally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and 4 uninfected steers. In steers with type-1 ostertagiosis, the concentration gradient between the mucosal interstitium and the blood alone could account for higher than normal serum pepsinogen concentrations. High interstitial pepsinogen concentrations may have resulted from increased epithelial permeability or increased pepsinogen production and secretion. However, in steers with type-2 ostertagiosis, the concentration gradient could not entirely account for the high serum pepsinogen concentrations, suggesting that capillary permeability or surface area may have been altered. Lymphatic uptake contributed pepsinogen to the blood in all infected steers.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

An autogenous, multivalent, adjuvanted bacterin for epididymitis was tested in flocks of 700 to 800 Suffolk X white-faced lambs. Long-term feeding of low dosages of antibiotics also was tested in the Suffolk flock. Both methods appeared to reduce the incidence of the disease. The incidence of clinical epididymitis and the number of positive culture results from clinically affected rams were significantly reduced.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of pirfenidone administered IV in healthy horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—A 15 mg/kg dose of pirfenidone was administered IV over 5 minutes. Physical variables were recorded and blood samples collected prior to infusion; 2.5 minutes after beginning infusion; at the end of infusion; and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, and 90 minutes and 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after completion of infusion. Plasma concentrations of pirfenidone and its metabolites were determined.

Results—Mild clinical effects, including tachycardia and muscle fasciculations, were observed during drug administration but stopped at the end of the infusion. Pirfenidone and 2 metabolites, hydroxypirfenidone and carboxypirfenidone, were detected by the end of the 5-minute infusion. Mean peak plasma concentration of pirfenidone was 182.5 μmol/L, detected at the end of the infusion. Mean peak plasma concentrations of hydroxypirfenidone and carboxypirfenidone were 1.07 and 3.4 μmol/L, respectively, at 40 minutes after infusion. No parent drug or metabolites were detected at 24 hours. Distribution of pirfenidone best fit a 2-compartment model, and the drug had mean ± SEM elimination half-life of 86.0 ± 4.7 minutes, mean body clearance of 6.54 ± 0.45 mL/kg/min, and apparent volume of distribution at steady state of 0.791 ± 0.056 L/kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intravenous administration of pirfenidone was tolerated with transient adverse affects during infusion, and drug clearance was rapid.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize effects of IV administration of pirfenidone on clinical, biochemical, and hematologic variables and circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations in horses after infusion of a low dose of endotoxin.

Animals—18 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 6 horses/group) and administered an IV infusion of 30 ng of endotoxin/kg or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution during a 30-minute period. Lipopolysaccharide-pirfenidone horses received endotoxin followed by pirfenidone (loading dose of 11.6 mg/kg and then constant rate infusion [CRI] at 9.9 mg/kg/h for 3 hours). Lipopolysaccharide-saline horses received endotoxin followed by infusion (loading dose and CRI for 3 hours) of saline solution. Saline-pirfenidone horses received saline solution followed by pirfenidone (loading dose and then CRI for 3 hours). Physical examination variables were recorded and blood samples collected at predetermined intervals throughout the 24-hour study period. Blood samples were used for CBCs, biochemical analyses, and determinations of TNF-α concentrations.

Results—IV infusion of pirfenidone after administration of a low dose of endotoxin failed to attenuate the clinical, clinicopathologic, or cytokine alterations that developed secondary to endotoxin exposure. Intravenous infusion of pirfenidone after administration of saline solution induced mild transient clinical signs, but associated clinicopathologic changes were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of pirfenidone was tolerated with only mild transient clinical adverse effects during infusion. However, administration of pirfenidone did not protect horses from the systemic effects of experimentally induced endotoxemia. Further studies of related, but more potent, drugs may be warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Metabolic and production responses are reported for 72 cows treated with bovine somatotropin (bst) for 30 days starting at day 70 of lactation. Of these 72 cows, 48 had been exposed in the preceding lactation to long-term treatment with bst at 3 dosages and 24 (controls) had not been given bst. Approximately half of the cows in each group were parity-2 cows, the rest were older. Comparisons between groups were made separately for parity-2, and older cows.

Analyses, using pretreatment values of each variable as a covariate, indicated that older cows, but not parity-2 cows, significantly (P < 0.05) increased milk production during treatment. Parity-2 cows, however, had a significantly higher milk fat percentage than controls following treatment. Cows treated with 51.6 or 86 mg bst/d in both parity groups had significantly higher serum-free fatty acids than controls. Estimated net energy balances were significantly lower for older treated cows, but did not significantly differ from controls for parity-2 treated cows. Older cows in the 86 mg of bst/d group tended to have higher concentrations of blood glucose than did older control-group cows. Treatment with bst did not significantly increase serum ketone concentrations in any group of animals, and none of the cows developed clinical ketosis during this period.

Estimated net energy balance (eneb) during treatment was a significant (P < 0.05) covariate for free fatty acid concentrations in older cows and for milk fat percentage in parity-2 cows. Covariate adjusted analyses, using eneb during treatment as a covariate, indicated that lipolytic stimuli already acting may be enhanced by treatment with bst, but a negative energy balance was not a necessary precondition for free fatty acid concentrations to increase following somatotropin treatment. Similarly, milk fat percentages for parity-2 treated cows were significantly (P < 0.05) higher during treatment than controls when eneb during treatment was used as a covariate.

Increased milk fat concentrations in parity-2 treated cows were not associated with significant increases in the ratio of C18:C4-10 milk fatty acids, indicating that increased milk fat resulted from either an increase in incorporation of C18 fatty acids into milk fat coupled with an increase in de novo mammary synthesis of C4-10 milk fatty acids or an increase in C12-16 fatty acids that may arise either from increased tissue mobilization, from diet, or from de novo mammary synthesis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research