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  • Author or Editor: Michael K. Stoskopf x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the time and financial costs of programs for live trapping feral cats and determine whether allowing cats to become acclimated to the traps improved trapping effectiveness.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—107 feral cats in 9 colonies.

Procedure—15 traps were set at each colony for 5 consecutive nights, and 5 traps were then set per night until trapping was complete. In 4 colonies, traps were immediately baited and set; in the remaining 5 colonies, traps were left open and cats were fed in the traps for 3 days prior to the initiation of trapping. Costs for bait and labor were calculated, and trapping effort and efficiency were assessed.

Results—Mean ± SD overall trapping effort (ie, number of trap-nights until at least 90% of the cats in the colony had been captured or until no more than 1 cat remained untrapped) was 8.9 ± 3.9 trap-nights per cat captured. Mean overall trapping efficiency (ie, percentage of cats captured per colony) was 98.0 ± 4.0%. There were no significant differences in trapping effort or efficiency between colonies that were provided an acclimation period and colonies that were not. Overall trapping costs were significantly higher for colonies provided an acclimation period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that these live-trapping protocols were effective. Feeding cats their regular diets in the traps for 3 days prior to the initiation of trapping did not have a significant effect on trapping effort or efficiency in the present study but was associated with significant increases in trapping costs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1403–1405)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine reproductive capacity of naturally breeding free-roaming domestic cats and kitten survival rate.

Design—Prospective cohort and retrospective crosssectional study.

Animals—2,332 female cats brought to a trap-neuterreturn clinic for neutering and 71 female cats and 171 kittens comprising 50 litters from a cohort study of feral cats in managed colonies.

Procedure—Data collected for all cats included pregnancy, lactation, and estrus status and number of fetuses for pregnant cats. Additional data collected for feral cats in managed colonies included numbers of litters per year and kittens per litter, date of birth, kitten survival rate, and causes of death.

Results—Pregnant cats were observed in all months of the year, but the percentage of cats found to be pregnant was highest in March, April, and May. Cats produced a mean of 1.4 litters/y, with a median of 3 kittens/litter (range, 1 to 6). Overall, 127 of 169 (75%) kittens died or disappeared before 6 months of age. Trauma was the most common cause of death.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results illustrate the high reproductive capacity of free-roaming domestic cats. Realistic estimates of the reproductive capacity of female cats may be useful in assessing the effectiveness of population control strategies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1399–1402)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of immobilizing doses of xylazine-ketamine (XK), medetomidine-ketamine (MK), medetomidine-ketamine- acepromazine (MKA), and medetomidine-butorphanol- ketamine (MBK) in captive red wolves.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—32 adult captive red wolves.

Procedure—Wolves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: XK, MK, MKA, or MBK. Physiologic variables measured included heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, tidal volume, oxygen-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2, arterial blood gases, and rectal temperature. Induction time, muscle relaxation, and quality of recovery were assessed.

Results—Heart rates were lower in wolves in the MBK group than for the other groups. All 4 drug combinations induced considerable hypertension, with diastolic pressures exceeding 116 mm Hg. Blood pressure was lowest in wolves receiving the MBK combination. Respiratory rate was significantly higher in wolves receiving XK, MK, and MKA. Tidal volumes were similar for all groups. Wolves receiving XK, MK, and MKA were well-oxygenated throughout the procedure (SpO2 > 93%), whereas those receiving MBK were moderately hypoxemic (87% < SpO2 < 93%) during the first 20 minutes of the procedure. Hyperthermia was detected initially following induction in all groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The α2- adrenoceptor agonist-ketamine combinations provide rapid reversible anesthesia for red wolves but cause severe sustained hypertension. Such an adverse effect puts animals at risk for development of cerebral encephalopathy, retinal hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, and myocardial failure. Although the MBK combination offers some advantages over the others, it is advised that further protocol refinements be made to minimize risks associated with acute hypertension. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1366–1371)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the anesthetic efficacy and physiologic changes associated with exposure to tricaine methanesulfonate and clove oil (100% eugenol).

Animals—15 adult cultured red pacu (Piaractus brachypomus).

Procedure—Fish were exposed to each of 6 anesthetic concentrations in a within-subjects complete crossover design. Stages of anesthesia and recovery were measured, and physiologic data were collected before and during anesthesia.

Results—Interval to induction was more rapid and recovery more prolonged in fish exposed to eugenol, compared with those exposed to tricaine methanesulfonate. The margin of safety for eugenol was narrow, because at the highest concentration, most fish required resuscitation. Mixed venous-arterial PO2 consistently decreased with anesthesia, while PCO2 consistently increased with anesthesia in all fish regardless of anesthetic agent. The increase in PCO2 was accompanied by a decrease in pH, presumably secondary to respiratory acidosis. Anesthesia was associated with increased blood glucose, potassium, and sodium concentrations as well as Hct and hemoglobin. Fish anesthetized with eugenol were more likely to react to a hypodermic needle puncture than fish anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia induced with tricaine methanesulfonate or eugenol contributes to hypoxemia, hypercapnia, respiratory acidosis, and hyperglycemia in red pacu. Similar to tricaine methanesulfonate, eugenol appears to be an effective immobilization compound, but eugenol is characterized by more rapid induction, prolonged recovery, and a narrow margin of safety. Care must be taken when using high concentrations of eugenol for induction, because ventilatory failure may occur rapidly. In addition, analgesic properties of eugenol are unknown. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:337–342)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical features of avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in American coots.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—26 AVM-affected American coots and 12 unaffected coots.

Procedures—Complete physical, neurologic, hematologic, and plasma biochemical evaluations were performed. Affected coots received supportive care. All coots died or were euthanatized, and AVM status was confirmed via histopathologic findings.

Results—3 severely affected coots were euthanatized immediately after examination. Seventeen affected coots were found dead within 7 days of admission, but 5 affected coots survived > 21 days and had signs of clinical recovery. Abnormal physical examination findings appeared to be related to general debilitation. Ataxia (88%), decreased withdrawal reflexes (88%), proprioceptive deficits (81%), decreased vent responses (69%), beak or tongue weakness (42%), and head tremors (31%), as well as absent pupillary light responses (46%), anisocoria (15%), apparent blindness (4%), nystagmus (4%), and strabismus (4%) were detected. Few gross abnormalities were detected at necropsy, but histologically, all AVM-affected coots had severe vacuolation of white matter of the brain. None of the control coots had vacuolation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although there was considerable variability in form and severity of clinical neurologic abnormalities, clinical signs common in AVM-affected birds were identified. Clinical recovery of some AVM-affected coots can occur when supportive care is administered. Until the etiology is identified, caution should be exercised when rehabilitating and releasing coots thought to be affected by AVM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 80–85)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional serologic and coprologic survey.

Animals—100 feral cats and 76 pet domestic cats from Randolph County, NC.

Procedure—Blood and fecal samples were collected and tested.

Results—Percentages of feral cats seropositive for antibodies against B henselae and T gondii (93% and 63%, respectively) were significantly higher than percentages of pet cats (75% and 34%). Percentages of feral and pet cats with Cryptosporidium spp (7% of feral cats; 6% of pet cats), Giardia spp (6% of feral cats; 5% of pet cats), and T cati ova (21% of feral cats; 18% of pet cats) in their feces were not significantly different between populations. Results of CBCs and serum biochemical analyses were not significantly different between feral and pet cats, except that feral cats had a significantly lower median PCV and significantly higher median neutrophil count.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feral and pet cats had similar baseline health status, as reflected by results of hematologic and serum biochemical testing and similar prevalences of infection with Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and T cati. Feral cats did have higher seroprevalences of antibodies against B henselae and T gondii than did pet cats, but this likely was related to greater exposure to vectors of these organisms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1394–1398)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Scyphomedusa jellyfish with eversion syndrome had alterations in husbandry conditions, elemental content, or histologic appearance, compared with unaffected jellyfish.

Animals—123 jellyfish (44 with eversion syndrome and 79 without) at 6 institutions.

Procedures—Elemental analyses were performed on 24 jellyfish with eversion syndrome and 49 without, and histologic examinations were performed on 20 jellyfish with eversion syndrome and 30 without. A questionnaire distributed to 39 institutions with Scyphomedusa jellyfish was used to gather information about husbandry, environmental conditions, and prevalence of eversion syndrome.

Results—For the 39 institutions that responded to the questionnaire, prevalence of eversion syndrome ranged from 0% to 30%. For Aurelia aurita, eversion was more common at institutions with only captive-raised and no wild-caught jellyfish. Eversion was most common among young (approx 1- to 2-month-old) growing jellyfish and older (> 6-month-old) jellyfish. Elemental analysis revealed only minor differences between affected and unaffected jellyfish, with great variation among jellyfish from the same institution and among jellyfish from different institutions. Striated muscle degeneration and necrosis and extracellular matrix (mesoglea) degeneration were evident on histologic examination of affected jellyfish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that eversion syndrome is a complex phenomenon associated with degenerative changes of the bell matrix.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research