Objective—To determine reproductive capacity of
naturally breeding free-roaming domestic cats and kitten
Design—Prospective cohort and retrospective crosssectional
Animals—2,332 female cats brought to a trap-neuterreturn
clinic for neutering and 71 female cats and 171
kittens comprising 50 litters from a cohort study of
feral cats in managed colonies.
Procedure—Data collected for all cats included pregnancy,
lactation, and estrus status and number of
fetuses for pregnant cats. Additional data collected for
feral cats in managed colonies included numbers of
litters per year and kittens per litter, date of birth, kitten
survival rate, and causes of death.
Results—Pregnant cats were observed in all months
of the year, but the percentage of cats found to be
pregnant was highest in March, April, and May. Cats
produced a mean of 1.4 litters/y, with a median of 3
kittens/litter (range, 1 to 6). Overall, 127 of 169 (75%)
kittens died or disappeared before 6 months of age.
Trauma was the most common cause of death.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results illustrate
the high reproductive capacity of free-roaming
domestic cats. Realistic estimates of the reproductive
capacity of female cats may be useful in assessing the
effectiveness of population control strategies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1399–1402)
Objective—To determine the time and financial costs
of programs for live trapping feral cats and determine
whether allowing cats to become acclimated to the
traps improved trapping effectiveness.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—107 feral cats in 9 colonies.
Procedure—15 traps were set at each colony for 5
consecutive nights, and 5 traps were then set per
night until trapping was complete. In 4 colonies, traps
were immediately baited and set; in the remaining 5
colonies, traps were left open and cats were fed in
the traps for 3 days prior to the initiation of trapping.
Costs for bait and labor were calculated, and trapping
effort and efficiency were assessed.
Results—Mean ± SD overall trapping effort (ie, number
of trap-nights until at least 90% of the cats in the
colony had been captured or until no more than 1 cat
remained untrapped) was 8.9 ± 3.9 trap-nights per cat
captured. Mean overall trapping efficiency (ie, percentage
of cats captured per colony) was 98.0 ±
4.0%. There were no significant differences in trapping
effort or efficiency between colonies that were
provided an acclimation period and colonies that were
not. Overall trapping costs were significantly higher
for colonies provided an acclimation period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that these live-trapping protocols were effective.
Feeding cats their regular diets in the traps for 3 days
prior to the initiation of trapping did not have a significant
effect on trapping effort or efficiency in the present
study but was associated with significant
increases in trapping costs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1403–1405)
Objective—To compare the anesthetic efficacy and
physiologic changes associated with exposure to tricaine
methanesulfonate and clove oil (100%
Animals—15 adult cultured red pacu (Piaractus
Procedure—Fish were exposed to each of 6 anesthetic
concentrations in a within-subjects complete
crossover design. Stages of anesthesia and recovery
were measured, and physiologic data were collected
before and during anesthesia.
Results—Interval to induction was more rapid and
recovery more prolonged in fish exposed to eugenol,
compared with those exposed to tricaine methanesulfonate.
The margin of safety for eugenol was narrow,
because at the highest concentration, most fish
required resuscitation. Mixed venous-arterial PO2 consistently
decreased with anesthesia, while PCO2 consistently
increased with anesthesia in all fish regardless
of anesthetic agent. The increase in PCO2 was
accompanied by a decrease in pH, presumably secondary
to respiratory acidosis. Anesthesia was associated
with increased blood glucose, potassium, and
sodium concentrations as well as Hct and hemoglobin.
Fish anesthetized with eugenol were more likely
to react to a hypodermic needle puncture than fish
anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia
induced with tricaine methanesulfonate or eugenol
contributes to hypoxemia, hypercapnia, respiratory
acidosis, and hyperglycemia in red pacu. Similar to tricaine
methanesulfonate, eugenol appears to be an
effective immobilization compound, but eugenol is
characterized by more rapid induction, prolonged
recovery, and a narrow margin of safety. Care must
be taken when using high concentrations of eugenol
for induction, because ventilatory failure may occur
rapidly. In addition, analgesic properties of eugenol
are unknown. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:337–342)
Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects
of immobilizing doses of xylazine-ketamine (XK),
medetomidine-ketamine (MK), medetomidine-ketamine-
acepromazine (MKA), and medetomidine-butorphanol-
ketamine (MBK) in captive red wolves.
Animals—32 adult captive red wolves.
Procedure—Wolves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4
treatment groups: XK, MK, MKA, or MBK. Physiologic
variables measured included heart rate, blood pressure,
respiratory rate, tidal volume, oxygen-hemoglobin
saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2, arterial blood gases,
and rectal temperature. Induction time, muscle relaxation,
and quality of recovery were assessed.
Results—Heart rates were lower in wolves in the MBK
group than for the other groups. All 4 drug combinations
induced considerable hypertension, with diastolic
pressures exceeding 116 mm Hg. Blood pressure was
lowest in wolves receiving the MBK combination.
Respiratory rate was significantly higher in wolves
receiving XK, MK, and MKA. Tidal volumes were similar
for all groups. Wolves receiving XK, MK, and MKA
were well-oxygenated throughout the procedure (SpO2
> 93%), whereas those receiving MBK were moderately
hypoxemic (87% < SpO2 < 93%) during the first
20 minutes of the procedure. Hyperthermia was
detected initially following induction in all groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The α2-
adrenoceptor agonist-ketamine combinations provide
rapid reversible anesthesia for red wolves but cause
severe sustained hypertension. Such an adverse
effect puts animals at risk for development of cerebral
encephalopathy, retinal hemorrhage, pulmonary
edema, and myocardial failure. Although the MBK
combination offers some advantages over the others,
it is advised that further protocol refinements be
made to minimize risks associated with acute hypertension.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1366–1371)
Objective—To determine whether Scyphomedusa jellyfish with eversion syndrome had alterations in husbandry conditions, elemental content, or histologic appearance, compared with unaffected jellyfish.
Animals—123 jellyfish (44 with eversion syndrome and 79 without) at 6 institutions.
Procedures—Elemental analyses were performed on 24 jellyfish with eversion syndrome and 49 without, and histologic examinations were performed on 20 jellyfish with eversion syndrome and 30 without. A questionnaire distributed to 39 institutions with Scyphomedusa jellyfish was used to gather information about husbandry, environmental conditions, and prevalence of eversion syndrome.
Results—For the 39 institutions that responded to the questionnaire, prevalence of eversion syndrome ranged from 0% to 30%. For Aurelia aurita, eversion was more common at institutions with only captive-raised and no wild-caught jellyfish. Eversion was most common among young (approx 1- to 2-month-old) growing jellyfish and older (> 6-month-old) jellyfish. Elemental analysis revealed only minor differences between affected and unaffected jellyfish, with great variation among jellyfish from the same institution and among jellyfish from different institutions. Striated muscle degeneration and necrosis and extracellular matrix (mesoglea) degeneration were evident on histologic examination of affected jellyfish.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that eversion syndrome is a complex phenomenon associated with degenerative changes of the bell matrix.
Objective—To compare seroprevalences of antibodies
against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and
fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp,
and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats.
Design—Prospective cross-sectional serologic and
Animals—100 feral cats and 76 pet domestic cats
from Randolph County, NC.
Procedure—Blood and fecal samples were collected
Results—Percentages of feral cats seropositive for antibodies
against B henselae and T gondii (93% and 63%,
respectively) were significantly higher than percentages
of pet cats (75% and 34%). Percentages of feral and pet
cats with Cryptosporidium spp (7% of feral cats; 6% of
pet cats), Giardia spp (6% of feral cats; 5% of pet cats),
and T cati ova (21% of feral cats; 18% of pet cats) in their
feces were not significantly different between populations.
Results of CBCs and serum biochemical analyses
were not significantly different between feral and pet
cats, except that feral cats had a significantly lower median
PCV and significantly higher median neutrophil count.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that feral and pet cats had similar baseline health
status, as reflected by results of hematologic and serum
biochemical testing and similar prevalences of infection
with Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and T cati. Feral
cats did have higher seroprevalences of antibodies
against B henselae and T gondii than did pet cats, but this
likely was related to greater exposure to vectors of these
organisms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1394–1398)
Objective—To characterize clinical features of avian
vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in American coots.
Animals—26 AVM-affected American coots and 12
Procedures—Complete physical, neurologic, hematologic,
and plasma biochemical evaluations were
performed. Affected coots received supportive care.
All coots died or were euthanatized, and AVM status
was confirmed via histopathologic findings.
Results—3 severely affected coots were euthanatized
immediately after examination. Seventeen
affected coots were found dead within 7 days of
admission, but 5 affected coots survived > 21 days
and had signs of clinical recovery. Abnormal physical
examination findings appeared to be related to general
debilitation. Ataxia (88%), decreased withdrawal
reflexes (88%), proprioceptive deficits (81%),
decreased vent responses (69%), beak or tongue
weakness (42%), and head tremors (31%), as well as
absent pupillary light responses (46%), anisocoria
(15%), apparent blindness (4%), nystagmus (4%),
and strabismus (4%) were detected. Few gross
abnormalities were detected at necropsy, but histologically,
all AVM-affected coots had severe vacuolation
of white matter of the brain. None of the control
coots had vacuolation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
there was considerable variability in form and severity
of clinical neurologic abnormalities, clinical signs
common in AVM-affected birds were identified.
Clinical recovery of some AVM-affected coots can
occur when supportive care is administered. Until the
etiology is identified, caution should be exercised
when rehabilitating and releasing coots thought to be
affected by AVM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: