Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Michael J. Yaeger x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) on immunohistochemical staining for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the skin and periosteum of sheep.

Animals—36 sheep.

Procedures—All 4 limbs of 36 sheep were treated with ESWT, RPWT, or a sham treatment. For 14 days after treatment, at least 2 sheep were euthanized daily and tissue was harvested for histologic evaluation of nerves via staining for substance P and CGRP in the skin and periosteum.

Results—No effects of ESWT or RPWT were observed on the number of nerves with stain uptake for substance P or CGRP in the skin or periosteum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substance P- and CGRP-containing nerve fibers are not disrupted by EWST or RPWT. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanism of analgesia observed in association with these treatment modalities.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the duration and potential mechanisms of analgesia following extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) in limbs of horses and sheep.

Animals—6 horses and 30 sheep.

Procedure—An electrical stimulus was used to identify the nociceptive threshold for each horse daily for 3 days before treatment (baseline) with ESWT or RPWT, 8 hours after treatment, and at 24-hour intervals for 7 days after treatment. Testing was conducted for the treatment field (midmetacarpus or midmetatarsus) and nerve field (medial and lateral forelimb heel bulbs) distal to a treatment site that included the nerve on the abaxial surface of the proximal sesamoid bone. All 4 limbs of 30 sheep were treated with ESWT, RPWT, or a sham treatment. Two sheep were euthanatized daily and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation of nerves, and concentrations of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide were measured in the skin and periosteum.

Results—Values did not differ significantly between baseline and after treatment for the treatment field or nerve field sensation. There was a large difference in the slope when data for horses were plotted for the first 3 days after treatment, compared with the slope for days 4 to 7 after treatment. No differences were found in neuropeptide concentrations after treatment of the sheep, but there was an inflammatory response in the treated nerves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A small cutaneous analgesic effect may exist at the treatment site for approximately 3 days after ESWT or RPWT in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1702–1708)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902.

Animals—51 female guinea pigs.

Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged IP with C jejuni IA3902; 48 hours later, animals were euthanized, complete necropsy was performed, and blood and tissue samples were obtained for bacteriologic culture.

Results—Administration of vaccine B or the experimental bacterin, but not vaccine A, significantly reduced 48-hour infection rates versus administration of the sham vaccine. A significantly reduced 48-hour infection rate was associated with administration of vaccine B independent of pregnancy status.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of vaccine B significantly reduced infection in guinea pigs challenged with C jejuni IA3902, similar to a homologous bacterin. Results suggested that vaccine B or an autogenous product may be effective in controlling ovine campylobacteriosis caused by this emergent abortifacient strain. Bacteriologic culture of blood, liver, bile, and uterus in nonpregnant guinea pigs 48 hours after inoculation may be a useful screening tool for comparing efficacy of C jejuni vaccines.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare pathogenicity of an emergent abortifacient Campylobacter jejuni (IA 3902) with that of reference strains after oral inoculation in pregnant guinea pigs.

Animals—58 pregnant guinea pigs.

Procedures—12 animals were challenged IP with C jejuni IA 3902 along with 5 sham-inoculated control animals to confirm abortifacient potential. Once pathogenicity was confirmed, challenge via oral inoculation was performed whereby 12 guinea pigs received IA 3902, 12 received C jejuni isolated from ovine feces (OF48), 12 received a fully sequenced human C jejuni isolate (NCTC 11168), and 5 were sham-inoculated control animals. After abortions, guinea pigs were euthanized; samples were collected for microbial culture, histologic examination, and immunohistochemical analysis.

ResultsC jejuni IA 3902 induced abortion in all 12 animals following IP inoculation and 6 of 10 animals challenged orally. All 3 isolates colonized the intestines after oral inoculation, but only IA 3902 induced abortion. Evidence of infection existed for both IA 3902 and NCTC 11168; however, C jejuni was only recovered from fetoplacental units of animals inoculated with IA 3902. Immunohistochemical analysis localized C jejuni IA 3902 infection to subplacental trophoblasts, perivascular tissues, and phagocytes in the placental transitional zone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed that C jejuni IA 3902 was a unique, highly abortifacient strain with the ability to colonize the intestines, induce systemic infection, and cause abortion because of its affinity for the fetoplacental unit. Guinea pigs could be effectively used in the study of septic abortion after oral inoculation with this Campylobacter strain.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of focused, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the healing of wounds of the distal portion of the limbs in horses.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—In each horse, a 4-cm-diameter full-thickness wound that included underlying periosteum was created on the dorsomedial aspect of each metacarpus and two 3-cm-diameter full-thickness wounds that included underlying periosteum were created on the dorsomedial aspect of each metatarsus. One randomly selected metacarpal wound and a randomly selected pair of metatarsal wounds were treated once weekly with ESWT at an energy flux density of 0.11 mJ/mm2. For metacarpal wounds, swab specimens were collected for bacterial culture on days 1, 2, and 3 and area of epithelialization and extent of wound contraction were measured at 3- to 4-day intervals. Metatarsal wounds were biopsied after 2 and 4 weeks, and immunohistochemical staining for vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 was performed.

Results—Results of bacterial culture, area of epithelialization, and percentage of wound contraction did not differ between treated and untreated wounds; however, healing time for treated wounds (mean, 76 days) was significantly shorter than healing time for untreated wounds (90 days). Staining intensity of growth factors did not differ significantly between treated and untreated wounds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that ESWT may stimulate healing of wounds of the distal portion of the limbs in horses, although the mechanism by which healing was stimulated could not be identified.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Descriptions—A 4-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever (dog 1) was examined because of acute edema and erythema in the left hind limb and an inguinal mass, and a 5-year-old female Jack Russell Terrier (dog 2) was examined because of a recurring retro-peritoneal mass.

Clinical Findings—Dog 1 had an edematous, hyperemic left hind limb with a fixed inguinal mass. Monocytic neutrophilic leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia were detected. Diagnostic imaging revealed abnormal tissue surrounding the larger vessels and ureters and complete occlusion of the left limb veins. Surgery resulted in incomplete removal of the mass. Histologic examination revealed fibrosing pyogranulomatous inflammation. Results of a Histoplasma antigen test were positive, and reanalysis of the tissues revealed yeast cells indicative of Histoplasma capsulatum. Dog 2 had incomplete removal of a retroperitoneal mass. Histologic examination revealed fibrosing pyogranulomatous inflammation. The mass recurred 8 months later in dog 2; exploratory abdominal surgery at that time resulted in substantial hemorrhage from the adhered caudal aorta. Histologic examination of tissue sections from the second surgery revealed yeast cells consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis.

Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs had temporary improvement after surgery. Full clinical resolution required treatment for fungal disease. Dog 1 was treated with itraconazole, then fluconazole (total treatment time, 23 weeks). Dog 2 was treated with fluconazole for 36 weeks.

Clinical Relevance—Retroperitoneal pyogranulomatous fibrosis caused by fungal infections has not been reported in veterinary medicine. There was substantial morbidity, but the prognosis can be good when this abnormality is recognized and antifungal medications are administered.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure the relationship between gross lesions in swine carcasses observed at a processing plant and Salmonella contamination and to determine whether nonexpert assessments of lesion status would correspond with swine pathologists' judgments.

Animals—Carcasses of 202 conventionally raised and 156 antimicrobial-free pigs in a Midwestern US processing plant examined from December 2005 to January 2006.

Procedures—4 replicates were conducted. For each, freshly eviscerated carcasses were identified as having or lacking visceral adhesions by a nonexpert evaluator and digital carcass photographs were obtained. Swab specimens were obtained from carcasses before the final rinse stage of processing, and bacterial culture for Salmonella spp and Enterococcus spp was performed. Subsequently, carcass photographs were numerically scored for lesion severity by 3 veterinary pathologists. Results were used to test the ability of lesion detection to predict bacterial contamination of carcasses and the agreement between judgments of the inexperienced and experienced assessors.

Results—The probability of Salmonella contamination in carcasses with lesions identified at the abattoir was 90% higher than that in carcasses lacking lesions, after controlling for replicate identity and antimicrobial use. The receiver operating characteristic curve and Cohen κ indicated close agreement between lesion detection at the abattoir and by the 3 pathologists.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated the presence of lesions could be used to predict Salmonella contamination of swine carcasses and that a nonexpert processing-line assessment of lesions could be used to discriminate between healthy and chronically ill swine before their entry into the human food supply.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy of tulathromycin for prevention of abortion in pregnant ewes when administered within 24 hours after experimental inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni.

ANIMALS

20 pregnant ewes between 72 and 92 days of gestation.

PROCEDURES

All ewes were inoculated with a field strain of C jejuni (8.5 × 108 to 10.6 × 108 CFUs, IV). Eighteen hours later, ewes received either tulathromycin (1.1 mL/45 kg [2.4 mg/kg], SC; n = 10) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1.1 mL/45 kg, SC; sham; 10). Ewes were euthanized immediately after observation of vaginal bleeding, abortion, or completion of a 21-day observation period. Necropsy was performed on all ewes, and tissue specimens were obtained for bacterial culture and histologic examination.

RESULTS

1 sham-treated ewe and 1 tulathromycin-treated ewe developed signs of severe endotoxemia and were euthanized within 24 hours after C jejuni inoculation. Seven sham-treated and 2 tulathromycin-treated ewes developed vaginal bleeding or aborted and were euthanized between 4 and 21 days after C jejuni inoculation. The proportion of tulathromycin-treated ewes that developed vaginal bleeding or aborted during the 21 days after C jejuni inoculation (2/9) was significantly less than that for the sham-treated ewes (7/9).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that administration of tulathromycin to pregnant ewes following exposure to C jejuni was effective in decreasing the number of C jejuni–induced abortions. Because of concerns regarding the development of macrolide resistance among Campylobacter strains, prophylactic use of tulathromycin in sheep is not recommended.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research