PROCEDURES After collection of baseline clinical and historical data, dogs were randomly assigned to receive topically applied undiluted heterologous serum (n = 22) or isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (19) along with tobramycin and atropine. Epithelial debridement (at all visits) and grid keratotomy (at visits 2, 3, and 4) of SCCEDs were performed. Ophthalmic examination including fluorescein application was performed once weekly for 4 weeks or until corneal reepithelialization. Clinicians and owners were masked to treatment group.
RESULTS No differences in baseline data were detected between treatment groups. No difficulties with medication administration, noncompliance, or adverse reactions were noted. All SCCEDs in both groups healed by 4 weeks after treatment began. Median time to reepithelialization (2 weeks) was not significantly different between serum-treated and placebo-treated eyes. Irrespective of treatment group, median time to reepithelialization was not significantly different for Boxers versus non-Boxer breeds. Direct correlations were detected between time to reepithelialization and vascularization score at study entry, vascularization score at time of reepithelialization, and ulcer area at study entry in both groups. Time to reepithelialization was not correlated with age, sex, or duration of signs in either group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical application of undiluted heterologous serum was well tolerated by dogs with SCCEDs but, as an adjunct to standard treatment, did not reduce time to corneal reepithelialization.
Objective—To identify patterns and correlations of gross, histologic, and gene expression characteristics of articular cartilage from horses with osteoarthritis.
Animals—10 clinically normal horses and 11 horses with osteoarthritis of the metacarpal condyles.
Procedures—Metacarpophalangeal joints were opened and digitally photographed, and gross lesions were scored and quantified. Representative cartilage specimens were stained for histologic scoring. Total RNA from dorsal and palmar articular surfaces was processed on an equine gene expression microarray.
Results—Histologic scores were greater in both regions of osteoarthritic joints, compared with corresponding regions in control joints. Cartilage from the palmar aspect of diseased joints had the highest histologic scores of osteoarthritic sites or of either region in control joints. A different set of genes for dorsal and palmar osteoarthritis was identified for high and low gene expression. Articular cartilage from the dorsal region had surface fraying and greater expression of genes coding for collagen matrix components and proteins with anti-apoptotic function, compared with control specimens. Articular cartilage from the palmar region had greater fraying, deep fissures, and less expression of genes coding for glycosaminoglycan matrix formation and proteins with anti-apoptotic function, compared with cartilage from disease-free joints and the dorsal aspect of affected joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Metacarpal condyles of horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis had an identifiable and regional gene expression signature with typical morphologic features.
Objective—To measure respiratory motion of the thoracic wall region in dogs using a real-time motion tracking system and compare the amount of respiratory motion between dogs positioned with and without a vacuum-formable cushion.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in sternal and dorsal recumbency with and without a vacuum-formable cushion. Three-dimensional movement of anatomic landmarks was measured with a real-time motion capture system that tracked the locations of infrared light–emitting diodes attached externally to the dorsal or ventral and lateral aspects of the thoracic wall.
Results—Dogs positioned in sternal recumbency had significantly less cranial-to-caudal and left-to-right respiratory motion at the lateral aspect of the thoracic wall, compared with dogs positioned in dorsal recumbency, whether or not a cushion was used. For dogs treated in sternal recumbency, use of a cushion significantly increased the peak displacement vector (overall movement in 3-D space) for 3 of 4 marker locations on the dorsal thoracic wall. As respiratory rate increased, respiratory motion at the lateral and ventral aspects of the thoracic wall decreased when data for all dogs in dorsal recumbency were evaluated together.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations between respiratory rate and respiratory motion suggested that the use of rapid, shallow ventilation may be beneficial for dogs undergoing highly conformal radiation treatment. These results provide a basis for further research on respiratory motion in anesthetized dogs.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of flunixin meglumine following IV and transdermal administration to calves.
ANIMALS 8 healthy weaned Holstein bull calves.
PROCEDURES At 2 months of age, all calves received an injectable solution of flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV); then, after a 10-day washout period, calves received a topical formulation of flunixin (3.33 mg/kg, transdermally). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after IV and transdermal administration. At 8 months of age, the experimental protocol was repeated except calves received flunixin by the transdermal route first. Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. For each administration route, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental methods and compared between the 2 ages. Plasma prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentration was determined with an ELISA. The effect of age on the percentage change in PGE2 concentration was assessed with repeated-measures analysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of flunixin on PGE2 concentration was determined by nonlinear regression.
RESULTS Following IV administration, the mean half-life, area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and residence time were lower and the mean clearance was higher for calves at 8 months of age than at 2 months of age. Following transdermal administration, the mean maximum plasma drug concentration was lower and the mean absorption time and residence time were higher for calves at 8 months of age than at 2 months of age. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of flunixin on PGE2 concentration at 8 months of age was significantly higher than at 2 months of age. Age was not associated with the percentage change in PGE2 concentration following IV or transdermal flunixin administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In calves, the clearance of flunixin at 2 months of age was slower than that at 8 months of age following IV administration. Flunixin administration to calves may require age-related adjustments to the dose and dosing interval and an extended withdrawal interval.
Objective—To determine whether soil concentrations of total or virulent Rhodococcus equi differed among breeding farms with and without foals with pneumonia caused by R equi.
Sample Population—37 farms in central Kentucky.
Procedures—During January, March, and July 2006, the total concentration of R equi and concentration of virulent R equi were determined by use of quantitative bacteriologic culture and a colony immunoblot technique, respectively, in soil specimens obtained from farms. Differences in concentrations and proportion of virulent isolates within and among time points were compared among farms.
Results—Soil concentrations of total or virulent R equi did not vary among farms at any time point. Virulent R equi were identified in soil samples from all farms. Greater density of mares and foals was significantly associated with farms having foals with pneumonia attributable to R equi. Among farms with affected foals, there was a significant association of increased incidence of pneumonia attributable to R equi with an increase in the proportion of virulent bacteria between samples collected in March and July.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that virulent R equi were commonly recovered from soil of horse breeding farms in central Kentucky, regardless of the status of foals with pneumonia attributable to R equi on each farm. The incidence of foals with pneumonia attributable to R equi can be expected to be higher at farms with a greater density of mares and foals.
Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.
Viewpoint articles represent the opinions of the authors and do not represent AVMA endorsement of such statements.
Antimicrobial stewardship has been defined for the veterinary profession as “the actions veterinarians take individually and as a profession to preserve the effectiveness and availability of antimicrobial drugs through conscientious oversight and responsible medical decision-making while safeguarding animal, public, and environmental health.”1 These actions may include making a commitment in one’s veterinary practice by assigning a staff member to track stewardship activities, selecting antimicrobials in a judicious and evidence-based manner, or attending continuing education about antimicrobial use (AMU) decision-making. The