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  • Author or Editor: Michael J. Reese x
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Objective—To determine the frequency and duration of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) vaccine-induced interference with fecal parvovirus diagnostic testing in cats.

Design—Prospective controlled study.

Animals—Sixty-four 8- to 10-week-old specific-pathogen–free kittens.

Procedures—Kittens were inoculated once with 1 of 8 commercial multivalent vaccines containing modified-live virus (MLV) or inactivated FPV by the SC or intranasal routes. Feces were tested for parvovirus antigen immediately prior to vaccination, then daily for 14 days with 3 tests designed for detection of canine parvovirus. Serum anti-FPV antibody titers were determined by use of hemagglutination inhibition prior to vaccination and 14 days later.

Results—All fecal parvovirus test results were negative prior to vaccination. After vaccination, 1 kitten had positive test results with test 1, 4 kittens had positive results with test 2, and 13 kittens had positive results with test 3. Only 1 kitten had positive results with all 3 tests, and only 2 of those tests were subjectively considered to have strongly positive results. At 14 days after vaccination, 31% of kittens receiving inactivated vaccines had protective FPV titers, whereas 85% of kittens receiving MLV vaccines had protective titers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Animal shelter veterinarians should select fecal tests for parvovirus detection that have high sensitivity for FPV and low frequency of vaccine-related test interference. Positive parvovirus test results should be interpreted in light of clinical signs, vaccination history, and results of confirmatory testing. Despite the possibility of test interference, the benefit provided by universal MLV FPV vaccination of cats in high-risk environments such as shelters outweighs the impact on diagnostic test accuracy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical characteristics of primary bacterial peritonitis (infection of the peritoneal cavity with no identifiable intraperitoneal source of infection) and compare characteristics of primary and secondary peritonitis in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 (primary peritonitis) and 60 (secondary peritonitis) client-owned dogs and cats.

Procedures—Data from medical records of dogs and cats with primary and secondary peritonitis were reviewed for descriptive information regarding primary peritonitis and for comparison between the 2 forms of peritonitis.

Results—15 dogs and 9 cats met inclusion criteria for primary peritonitis, and 49 dogs and 11 cats met inclusion criteria for secondary peritonitis. The most common historical findings in dogs and cats with primary and secondary peritonitis were lethargy, vomiting, and anorexia. Dogs with secondary peritonitis more often developed peritoneal exudates than those with primary peritonitis, and dogs with primary peritonitis were more often infected with gram-positive bacteria than those with secondary peritonitis. No difference in outcome was detected between all animals with primary versus secondary peritonitis; however, dogs with secondary peritonitis treated with surgery were more commonly discharged than those with primary peritonitis treated with surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in primary and secondary peritonitis related to historical, physical examination, and clinical laboratory findings; bacteriologic findings; peritoneal effusion characteristics; and outcome were detected. However, larger case numbers are needed before alternative recommendations, such as avoidance of surgery, can be made.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effects of anesthesia and surgery on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.

Design—Prospective controlled trial.

Animals—32 specific-pathogen–free kittens.

Procedures—Kittens were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: neutering at 7, 8, or 9 weeks of age or no neutering. All kittens were inoculated with modified-live virus vaccines against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) at 8, 11, and 14 weeks of age and inactivated rabies virus (RV) at 14 weeks of age. Serum antibody titers against FPV, FHV, and FCV were determined at 8, 9, 11, 14, and 17 weeks of age; RV titers were determined at 14 and 17 weeks of age.

Results—Serologic responses of kittens neutered at the time of first vaccination (8 weeks) were not different from those of kittens neutered 1 week before (7 weeks) or 1 week after (9 weeks) first vaccination or from those of kittens that were not neutered. In total, 31%, 0%, 69%, and 9% of kittens failed to develop adequate titers against FPV, FCV, FHV, and RV, respectively, by 17 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutering at or near the time of first vaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine did not impair antibody responses in kittens. Many kittens that were last vaccinated at 14 weeks of age had inadequate antibody titers at 17 weeks of age. Kittens may be vaccinated in the perioperative period when necessary, and the primary vaccination series should be extended through at least 16 weeks of age.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association