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  • Author or Editor: Michael J. O'Brien x
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Abstract

Objectives

To develop a standard technique for evaluation of racehorse shoes, to assess homotypic variation (interlimb variation) in shoe characteristics, and to determine whether shoe characteristics varied with age and sex.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Animals

Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 201) that died or were euthanatized at California racetracks between August 1992 and July 1994.

Procedure

Shoe characteristics were measured on horses examined after death. Percentage of agreement was used to compare shoe characteristics between limbs (homotypic variation). Using χ2analysis, shoe characteristics were compared between horses grouped by age and sex.

Results

Toe grabs were present on 90.5% of horses, and rim shoes were present on 15.9% of horses. Heel traction devices were less frequent on front (2.5%) than rear (6%) hooves. Pads were present on 24.9% of horses, with bonded rim pads most common. Special types of shoes were present on 5% of horses. Percentage of agreement between left and right front hooves and between left and right rear hooves was high (20/25 variables; % agreement ≥ 99). In contrast, percentage of agreement between left front and left rear hooves and between right front and right rear hooves was low (2/25 variables; % agreement ≥ 99). Presence of a pad was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with age, and several shoe variables (size, presence of a special shoe, overall wear matched) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with sex.

Clinical Relevance

Except for variables related to special shoes, wear, and weight, 1 shoe for the respective fore- or hind limbs could be used as an indicator for the contralateral shoe worn by Thoroughbred racehorses without substantial loss of information. However, 1 shoe could not be used as an indicator for shoe characteristics of all 4 limbs. Some shoe characteristics are associated with age and sex, and these variables should be considered possible confounders in studies of shoe characteristics. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1141-1146)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Characteristic alterations in the serum and urine biochemical profiles of Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure (chf) resulting from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were determined. We compared these alterations with those observed in 2 other models of chf: rate overload induced by rapid ventricular pacing in dogs, and biventricular hypertrophy and dilatation induced in turkey poults by furazolidone toxicosis. Serum and urine biochemical changes in both models of chf in dogs were mild to moderate in degree, and were moderately consistent. They could be attributed to secondary neurohumoral, hepatic, and renal effects of heart failure. The most marked and consistent changes observed were mildly decreased anion gap that developed, in part, because of decreased serum sodium concentration, moderately increased catecholamine concentrations, moderate lactaciduria, hyposthenuria, and mildly increased urea concentrations and liver enzyme activities. In birds with furazolidone cardiomyopathy, we observed mild increases in serum urate concentration, liver and muscle enzyme activities, but moderately increased sodium concentration with decreased chloride concentration. In the pacing and furazolidone models, in which chf was rapidly induced, moderate to marked hypoproteinemia was attributable to decreases in albumin and globulin concentrations. Using the avian model we found that the hypoproteinemia could be largely attributed to blood volume expansion, and to a lesser extent, inanition. Development of hypoalbuminemia during rapid ventricular pacing and furazolidone treatment may contribute to the effects of rate overload or drug toxicity in the pathogenesis of chf, because hypoalbuminemia may contribute to altered hemodynamics and neuroendocrine system activation. Our data indicate that clinical biochemical analysis of serum and urine may be useful for assessing progression of chf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research