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Abstract

Objective—To compare concentrations of gentamicin in serum and bronchial lavage fluid after IV and aerosol administration of gentamicin to horses.

Animals—9 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Gentamicin was administered by aerosolization (20 ml of gentamicin solution [50 mg/ml]) and IV injection (6.6 mg of gentamicin/kg of body weight) to each horse, with a minimum of 2 weeks between treatments. Samples of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid were collected by small volume (30 ml) bronchial lavage 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours after gentamicin administration. Serum samples were obtained at the same times. All samples were analyzed for gentamicin concentration, and cytologic examinations were performed on aliquots of bronchial lavage fluid collected at 0.5, 8, and 24 hours.

Results—Gentamicin concentrations in bronchial lavage fluid were significantly greater 0.5, 4, and 8 hours after aerosol administration, whereas serum concentrations were significantly less at all times after aerosol administration, compared with IV administration. Neutrophil counts in bronchial lavage fluid increased from 0.5 to 24 hours, regardless of route of gentamicin administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aerosol administration of gentamicin to healthy horses resulted in gentamicin concentrations in bronchial fluid that were significantly greater than those obtained after IV administration. A mild inflammatory cell response was associated with aerosol delivery of gentamicin and repeated bronchial lavage. Aerosol administration of gentamicin may have clinical use in the treatment of bacterial bronchopneumonia in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1185–1190)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess gentamicin concentrations in serum and bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) of horses during a 24-hour period after once-daily aerosol administration of gentamicin (GAER) for 7 days and the pattern and degree of bronchial tree inflammation associated with repeated GAER.

Animals—13 healthy adult horses (9 geldings and 4 mares).

Procedure—The treatment group comprised 8 horses, and 5 horses were untreated control animals. Gentamicin (20 mL of gentamicin [50 mg/mL]) was administered via aerosol once daily for 7 days. Samples of serum and BLF were obtained from all horses before GAER and 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours after the final day of GAER. Gentamicin concentrations were determined for all samples from treated horses, and cytologic examinations were performed on all BLF samples.

Results—Peak median BLF gentamicin concentration detected at 0.5 hours was 2.50 µg/mL. Median serum gentamicin concentration was < 0.50 µg/mL at all time points. Significant differences were not observed in total nucleated cell counts or differential cell counts in BLF between groups at any time point. Neutrophil count in BLF for all horses was increased over baseline at 4 and 24 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We did not detect evidence of gentamicin accumulation or respiratory inflammation after once-daily GAER for 7 days. This protocol appears unlikely to result in local or systemic toxicosis. Repeated daily GAER to horses appears to be a safe procedure and may have clinical use in the treatment of horses with bacterial infections of the airways. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:173–178)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole paste, a commonly used antiulcer drug, on intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals.

Animals—6 clinically normal foals between 5 and 14 days of age.

Procedure—Intragastric pH was recorded in each foal by use of a disposable antimony pH electrode with internal reference. Values for intragastric pH were recorded every 4 seconds by use of an ambulatory pH monitor. There were two 24-hour recordings of intragastric pH for each foal, with 24 hours between recordings. Foals were not administered any drugs during the first recording. Foals were administered omeprazole paste (4 mg/kg, PO) 1 hour after the start of the second recording. Mean pH was calculated for each hour of each 24-hour recording session. Hourly mean values were compared between the first and second 24-hour recordings.

Results—Complete data were obtained from 4 of 6 foals during the first 24-hour recording and 6 of 6 foals during the second 24-hour recording. Foals had significantly higher mean hourly intragastric pH for hours 2 to 22 following omeprazole administration, compared with corresponding hourly pH values in foals during the first recording.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole paste can effectively increase intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals within 2 hours after oral administration of the first dose and can be administered to neonatal foals at the rate of 4 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1039–1041).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether conditions representing activities that are typical in the recreational use of horses, including transport to and from show grounds, stall confinement in unfamiliar surroundings, and light exercise, are associated with increased incidence of gastric ulcers in horses.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—20 client-owned horses.

Procedure—Horses had no gastric ulcers as determined by endoscopic examination on study day –1. Ten control horses were maintained on-site with no changes in management variables. Ten horses were transported via trailer for 4 hours on day 0 to another site, placed in individual stalls, fed twice daily, and exercised twice daily for 3 days. On day 4, they were transported back to the original site via trailer for 4 hours. On day 5, endoscopic examinations were performed on all horses to assess gastric mucosa status.

Results—Horses that were transported and housed off-site had a significantly higher incidence of hyperkeratosis and reddening of the gastric mucosa than control horses. Two control horses and 7 transported horses developed gastric ulcers by day 5. Ulcer scores of transported horses increased significantly from day –1, whereas ulcer scores in control horses did not change significantly from day –1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activities that are typical in recreational use of horses were ulcerogenic, and ulcers in the gastric squamous mucosa can develop under these conditions within 5 days. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:775–777)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of 8 days of light to heavy exercise on gastric ulcer development in horses and determine the efficacy of omeprazole paste in preventing gastric ulceration.

Design—Randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial.

Animals—102 horses with normal-appearing gastric mucosa on endoscopic examination that were in light to heavy training.

Procedures—Horses at 4 trial locations were allocated into replicates and sham dosed orally (empty syringe) or treated with a paste formulation of omeprazole (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/ lb], PO) once daily for 8 days. Training regimens varied among locations and included early training for western performance events; walking, trotting, and cantering in a mechanical exerciser; and race training (2 locations). Prevalences of gastric ulceration at the completion of the 8-day treatment period were compared between groups.

Results—At the end of the 8-day treatment period, the proportion of omeprazole-treated horses free from gastric ulceration (88%) was significantly higher than the proportion of sham-dosed horses free from gastric ulceration (27%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results showed that horses in light to heavy training for as short as 8 days were at risk of developing gastric ulcers and that administration of omeprazole paste decreased the incidence of gastric ulcers.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations between sea otters with and without cardiomyopathy and describe 2 cases of cardiomyopathy with different etiologies.

ANIMALS

25 free-ranging southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) with (n = 14; cases) and without (11; controls) cardiomyopathy and 17 healthy managed southern sea otters from aquariums or rehabilitation centers (controls).

PROCEDURES

Serum cTnI concentration was measured in live sea otters. Histopathologic and gross necropsy findings were used to classify cardiomyopathy status in free-ranging otters; physical examination and echocardiography were used to assess health status of managed otters. Two otters received extensive medical evaluations under managed care, including diagnostic imaging, serial cTnI concentration measurement, and necropsy.

RESULTS

A significant difference in cTnI concentrations was observed between cases and both control groups, with median values of 0.279 ng/mL for cases and < 0.006 ng/mL for free-ranging and managed controls. A cutoff value of ≥ 0.037 ng/mL yielded respective sensitivity and specificity estimates for detection of cardiomyopathy of 64.3% and 90.9% for free-ranging cases versus free-ranging controls and 64.3% and 94.1% for free-ranging cases versus managed controls.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cardiomyopathy is a common cause of sea otter death that has been associated with domoic acid exposure and protozoal infection. Antemortem diagnostic tests are needed to identify cardiac damage. Results suggested that serum cTnI concentration has promise as a biomarker for detection of cardiomyopathy in sea otters. Serial cTnI concentration measurements and diagnostic imaging are recommended to improve heart disease diagnosis in managed care settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007.

PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health records of cheetahs and their dams to identify incident cases of clinical FHV infection and estimate incidence from birth to 18 months of age. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for correlations among cheetahs with the same dam, were used to identify risk factors for incident FHV infection.

RESULTS Cumulative incidence of FHV infection in cheetah cubs was 35% (50/144). No significant association between dam and offspring infection was identified in any model. Factors identified as significant through multivariable analysis varied by age group. For cheetahs up to 3 months of age, the most important predictor of FHV infection was having a dam that had received a preparturition FHV vaccine regimen that included a modified-live virus vaccine versus a dam that had received no preparturition vaccine. Other risk factors included being from a small litter, being born to a primiparous dam, and male sex.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided the first population-level characterization of the incidence of and risk factors for FHV infection in cheetahs, and findings confirmed the importance of this disease. Recognition that clinical FHV infection in the dam was not a significant predictor of disease in cubs and identification of other significant factors have implications for disease management.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the onset of immunity after IM administration of a single dose of a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine against West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in a blind challenge trial.

Animals—20 mixed-breed horses.

Procedure—Horses with no prior exposure to WNV were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (10 horses/group). In 1 group, a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine against WNV was administered to each horse once (day 0). The other 10 control horses were untreated. On day 26, 9 treated and 10 control horses were challenged via the bites of mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) infected with WNV. Clinical responses and WNV isolation were monitored for 14 days after challenge exposure; antibody responses against WNV after administration of the vaccine and challenge were also assessed in both groups.

Results—Following challenge via WNV-infected mosquitoes, 1 of 9 treated horses developed viremia. In contrast, 8 of 10 control horses developed viremia after challenge exposure to WNV-infected mosquitoes. All horses seroconverted after WNV challenge; compared with control horses, antibody responses in the horses that received the vaccine were detected earlier.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, a single dose of the recombinant canarypox virus-WNV vaccine appears to provide early protection against development of viremia after challenge with WNVinfected mosquitoes, even in the absence of measurable antibody titers in some horses. This vaccine may provide veterinarians with an important tool in controlling WNV infection during a natural outbreak or under conditions in which a rapid onset of protection is required. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1459–1462)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research