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- Author or Editor: Michael J. Kimber x
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Objective—To determine the spatiotemporal gait characteristics and associated covariates of clinically normal dogs and dogs with spinal cord disease.
Animals—42 clinically normal dogs and 24 dogs with myelopathy at spinal cord segment T3-L3.
Procedures—Gait was analyzed for velocity, stride length, stride time, stance time, and swing time and compared between groups with consideration of covariates, including height, weight, velocity, sex, and age.
Results—By use of multivariate regression, dogs with neurologic signs, compared with clinically normal dogs, had decreased stride time, stance time, and stride length in the forelimbs and increased swing time in the hind limbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of spatiotemporal gait characteristics appears to have potential for use as an outcome measure for dogs with neurologic disease.
Objective—To evaluate use of a radiolabeled peptide nucleic acid–peptide conjugate (RaPP) targeting B-cell leukemia-lymphoma 2 (BCL2) mRNA for scintigraphic detection of neoplastic lymphocytes in dogs with B-cell lymphoma and to assess associations among RaPP uptake, time to tumor progression (TTP), and BCL2 mRNA expression.
Animals—11 dogs with B-cell lymphoma and 1 clinically normal dog.
Procedures—Scintigraphic images were acquired 1 hour after IV injection of the RaPP. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around lymph nodes, liver, and spleen; ROI intensity (relative to that of an equally sized region of muscle in the same image) was measured. Each ROI was also subjectively categorized as positive or negative for increased RaPP uptake. Expression of BCL2 mRNA was determined via quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay of a lymph node sample from dogs with lymphoma. Associations among imaging results, TTP, and BCL2 mRNA expression were evaluated.
Results—Increased RaPP uptake was detected in affected tissues of dogs with lymphoma. Dogs with superficial cervical lymph node ROIs categorized as negative (n = 8) for increased RaPP uptake had a significantly longer TTP than did dogs for which this ROI was considered positive (2). Measured intensity of mandibular and superficial cervical lymph node ROIs was negatively associated with TTP. Associations among BCL2 mRNA and ROI intensity or TTP were not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased RaPP uptake at mandibular or superficial cervical lymph node ROIs may be a negative prognostic indicator in dogs with lymphoma. A larger investigation is needed to determine clinical value of the RaPP for disease detection and prognostication.
Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.
Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp
Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media
Results—Of the 3 unique Salmonella disease phenotypes observed in cattle, only protozoa-mediated hypervirulence was observed in pigs. Hypervirulence was related to a more rapid onset of disease and higher pathogen burden in pigs than in cattle. This phenotype was observed in pigs inoculated with multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium or Choleraesuis bearing the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) integron.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Salmonella hypervirulence was identified in pigs noculated with SGI1-bearing strains exposed to free-living protozoa. Additionally, an SGI1-bearing strain of Salmonella Choleraesuis was detected that resulted in augmented virulence in pigs. Therefore, it appeared that protozoa-associated salmonellosis was analogous in pigs and cattle. Salmonella-mediated encephalopathy and multisystemic cytopathicity did not appear to be relevant diseases in pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1170-1177)