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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Epidural analgesia was achieved at weekly intervals in 6 adults llamas by injection of 2% lidocaine, 10% xylazine, and a combination of 2% lidocaine/10% xylazine at the sacrococcygeal junction. Analgesia was determined by lack of response to pin prick or hemostat pressure in the perineal area. Ataxia could not be accurately evaluated because of the llamas’ tendency to assume sternal recumbency when restrained. Time to onset of analgesia was not different between lidocaine (3.16 ± 0.31 minutes) and lidocaine/xylazine (3.50 ± 0.56 minutes), but results for both groups were different than those for xylazine (20.67 ± 3.37 minutes). Duration of analgesia was different among all groups (lidocaine, 71.0 ± 6.15 minutes; xylazine, 186.83 ± 14.86 minutes; lidocaine/xylazine, 325.83 ± 29.39 minutes). Mild sedation developed in 4 llamas given xylazine alone. Lidocaine/xylazine caused mild sedation in 2 llamas and moderate sedation in 1 llama. Significant changes in pulse or respiratory rates were not observed among drugs, but changes were observed over time with all drugs. As has been reported in other species, lidocaine/xylazine provided rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe the anatomy of the sternum in llamas, define the surgical approach to the sternum for collection of cancellous bone graft tissue, and compare the histologic appearance of graft tissue obtained from the sternum with that obtained from the proximal portion of the tibia.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

12 llamas, 3 to 19 years old, that had been submitted for necropsy.

Procedure

Radiographs were taken of the sternum and left tibia of the llamas. Measurements of the sternum were determined from the radiographs and adjusted for magnification. Sternebrae volumes were estimated from these measurements. Anatomic dissections to the center of the fourth sternebra and the proximal portion of the tibia were made, and a surgical approach to the sternum was developed. Cancellous graft tissue was obtained from each site and submitted for histologic evaluation.

Results

Sternebrae 3, 4, and 5 were significantly larger in volume than the other sternebrae. The ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was readily accessed for removal of graft tissue by making a 6-cm-long ventral midline incision centered 17 cm craniad to the xiphoid. Mean soft tissue thickness overlying the ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was 3.1 cm. More tissue was obtained from the sternal (mean, 9.11 g) than from the tibial (mean, 5.16 g) sites. Sternal graft tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with predominantly hematopoietic marrow, whereas tibial tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with only fatty marrow.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The fourth sternebra in llamas is readily accessible for obtaining autogenous cancellous bone graft tissue that consists of predominantly hematopoietic marrow. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:362–365)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old castrated male Nigerian Dwarf goat with recurrent urethral obstruction after perineal urethrostomy.

Clinical Findings—The wether goat was referred for evaluation of a perineal urethrostomy site; perineal urethrostomy had been performed 1.5 years earlier. The site was patent, but a moderate stricture was found just cranial to the perineal urethrostomy site. The goat had obstructed urine flow at the stricture site repeatedly in the previous few months.

Treatment and Outcome—Laparoscopically assisted urinary bladder marsupialization was recommended. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anesthesia in dorsal recumbency; food had been withheld for 36 hours prior to anesthesia. Ventral midline and left caudal paramedian portals were made for the laparoscopic camera and instruments. A larger incision in the right caudal paramedian portion of the abdomen was used to create the marsupialization stoma. Laparoscopic observation of anatomic structures within the abdomen was excellent. The goat recovered well from surgery and was discharged the day following surgery. Follow-up examinations were done every few months after surgery, and dermatitis of the abdominal skin secondary to urine scald was the only postoperative complication. At 9 months of follow-up, the goat continued to pass urine through the marsupialization site comfortably.

Clinical Relevance—In the goat of this report, laparoscopic urinary bladder marsupialization was a minimally invasive procedure with minimal signs of postoperative pain. The procedure was simple to perform and should be considered as an alternative to marsupialization via laparotomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To provide long-term gastric fistulas for collection of third-compartment gastric contents, Janeway mucosal tube gastrostomy was performed, using a gastrointestinal stapling instrument, in 6 castrated adult male llamas. Mean operative time (±sem) was 65 ±4.16 minutes. All llamas survived the 6-week study period. Of the 6 llamas, 5 did not have signs of abdominal pain and returned to preoperative food consumption amounts within 36 hours. One llama had mild intermittent signs of abdominal pain daily for 7 days before returning to preoperative amount of food consumption. All gastrostomies leaked small amounts of gastric contents around indwelling 6- to 8-mm cannulas at the skin surface. Gastric contents did not leak when cannulas were dislodged from gastrostomy stomas. Replacement of cannulas was rapid and easy. Gravity-flow sample collection was best accomplished through 8-mm cannulas. Mean (±sem) weight loss was detected in all llamas (15 ± 3 kg) and was associated with frequent nonfeeding and stress of sample collection.

Gross necropsy findings were unremarkable in 5 of 6 llamas. All mucosal tube gastrostomies were patent, and there was no evidence of peritonitis. One llama had a single fibrous adhesion connecting the operative site with the ascending colon. Histologically, small (2.5- to 15-mm diameter) partial-thickness mucosal erosions identified at the tube gastrostomy-gastric wall junctions may have been associated with indwelling gastric cannulas. The Janeway gastrostomy was generally well tolerated in the llamas and should be considered as a useful long-term fistulation technique.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four autogenous osteochondral fragments removed from the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus were arthroscopically placed as loose bodies in a randomly selected middle carpal joint in each of 10 horses. The contralateral middle carpal joint, subjected to a sham procedure, served as control. Postoperative treatment was consistent with that for clinical arthroscopic patients. Lameness evaluation, radiographic examination, carpal circumference measurement, and synovial fluid analysis were performed before and at scheduled intervals after surgery. After a 2-month confinement, horses were subjected to an increasing level of exercise. Horses were euthanatized at intervals through 6 months. Gross and microscopic evaluations were performed on remaining fragments, articular cartilage, and synovial membrane of each middle carpal joint.

Increased joint circumference, effusion, lameness, and degenerative joint disease distinguished implanted from control joints over the 6-month period. Implanted joints were characterized by grooved, excoriated cartilage surfaces, and synovium that was thick, erythematous, and irregular. At 4 weeks, implants were found to have adhered to synovium at their subchondral bone surface. The bone within fragments was undergoing necrosis, while cartilage was preserved. At 8 weeks, fragments were radiographically inapparent, grossly evident as pale plaques on the synovial surface, and composed of dense fibrous connective tissue.

Synovial membrane specimens from implanted joints had inflammatory change characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration 2 months after implantation. Physical damage was apparent within articular cartilage of implanted joints at 2 months, and was significant (P < 0.05) at 6 months after surgery. Chondrocyte degenerative change was significant (P < 0.05) at 6 months after surgery. Focal reduction in safranin-O uptake was observed in cartilage layers adjacent to physical defects.

Osteochondral loose bodies of the size implanted in the middle carpal joint of horses in this study were resorbed by the synovium within 2 months. Synovitis and significant articular cartilage damage were associated with the implanted fragments. Regardless of origin, free osteochondral fragments within the middle carpal joint should be removed, and methods to prevent residual postoperative debris should be implemented to reduce potential for articular pathologic change.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research