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  • Author or Editor: Michael J. Hamilton x
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Objective—To determine indications for cystostomy tube use in dogs and cats, complications associated with their use, and outcome of dogs and cats in which cystostomy tubes had been inserted.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 dogs and 39 cats.

Procedures—Information was obtained from medical records.Long-term follow-up information was obtained by use of a client questionnaire.

Results—Indications for cystostomy tube placement were bladder dysfunction, urinary tract rupture, obstructive urinary tract neoplasia, urinary diversion following urogenital surgery, obstructive urolithiasis, and feline lower urinary tract disease.Median time tubes were in place was 11 days, but duration of tube use was significantly longer for animals with blad-der dysfunction than for animals with urinary tract trauma, urinary diversion, or urinary tract obstruction.Thirty-seven (49%) animals had tube complications.Development of complica tions was not significantly associated with species, age, body weight, duration of tube use, or tube type, except that animals were significantly more likely to develop complications following long-rather than short-term use.In 42 animals, the underlying condition resolved and the tube was removed; 22 animals died or were euthanatized with the tube in place.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cystostomy tubes may be used for animals with various conditions related to problems with urine outflow.Nearly half the animals in the study developed complications related to the cystostomy tube, suggesting that potential complications should be discussed with owners prior to tube placement. However, most complications were easily resolved.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate allele frequencies of the hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS), glycogen branching enzyme deficiency (GBED), hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), and type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) genes in elite performance subgroups of American Quarter Horses (AQHs).

Design—Prospective genetic survey.

Animals—651 elite performance AQHs, 200 control AQHs, and 180 control American Paint Horses (APHs).

Procedures—Elite performance AQHs successful in 7 competitive disciplines (barrel racing, cutting, halter, racing, reining, western pleasure, and working cow horse) were geno- typed for 5 disease-causing alleles. Age-matched control AQHs and APHs were used to establish comparative whole-breed estimates of allele frequencies.

Results—Highest allele frequencies among control AQHs were for type 1 PSSM (0.055) and GBED (0.054), whereas HERDA (0.021) and HYPP (0.008) were less prevalent. Control APHs uniquely harbored LWFS (0.107) and had high prevalence of HYPP (0.025), relative to AQHs. Halter horse subgroups had significantly greater allele frequencies for HYPP (0.299) and PSSM (0.155). Glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, HERDA, and PSSM were found broadly throughout subgroups; cutting subgroups were distinct for HERDA (0.142), and western pleasure subgroups were distinct for GBED (0.132). Racing and barrel racing subgroups had the lowest frequencies of the 5 disease genes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate estimates of disease-causing alleles in AQHs and APHs may guide use of diagnostic genetic testing, aid management of genetic diseases, and help minimize production of affected foals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association