Objective—To test the hypothesis that simulated digests of Biota orientalis (BO) and a dietary nutraceutical (DN; composed of mussel, shark cartilage, abalone, and BO seed lipid extract) inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production in interleukin (IL)-1–stimulated cartilage explants.
Sample Population—Cartilage tissue from 12 pigs.
Procedures—Articular cartilage explants were conditioned with a simulated digest of BO (BOsim) or DN (DNsim) at concentrations of 0, 0.06, or 0.18 mg/mL or indomethacin (INDOsim; 0 or 0.02 mg/mL) for 72 hours. Control explants received digest vehicle only. Explants were or were not stimulated with recombinant human-IL-1β (10 or 0 ng/mL) during the final 48 hours of culture. Concentrations of PGE2, GAG, and NO in media samples (mPGE2,mGAG, and mNO concentrations, respectively) were analyzed, and explant tissue was stained fluorochromatically to determine chondrocyte viability. Treatment effects during the final 48-hour culture period were analyzed.
Results—IL-1 increased mPGE2, mGAG, and mNO concentrations in control explants without adversely affecting cell viability. Treatment with INDOsim blocked PGE2 production and increased mNO concentration in IL-1–stimulated and unstimulated explants and increased mGAG concentration in unstimulated explants. Treatment with DNsim (0.06 and 0.18 mg/mL) reduced mPGE2 concentration in IL-1–stimulated and unstimulated explants, reduced mNO concentration in IL-1–stimulated explants, and increased mNO concentration in unstimulated explants. Treatment with 0.18 mg of DNsim/mL increased cell viability in the presence of IL-1. In IL-1–stimulated explants, BOsim (0.06 and 0.18 mg/mL) reduced mPGE2 concentration, but 0.18 mg of BOsim/mL increased cell viability.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Effects of IL-1 on cartilage explants in vitro were modulated by DNsim and BOsim.
Objective—To evaluate inflammatory responses induced via intra-articular recombinant human interleukin (IL)-1β treatment in horses receiving a dietary nutraceutical (DN; composed of mussel, shark cartilage, abalone, and Biota orientalis lipid extract) and assess the clinical effects of long-term DN administration.
Animals—22 healthy horses.
Procedures—12 horses were fed 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg of DN (3 horses/treatment) daily for 84 days. General health and clinicopathologic variables were monitored at intervals. Ten other horses received 0 or 15 g of DN/d (5 horses/treatment) for 29 days (beginning day −14). One intercarpal joint in each horse was injected twice with IL-1β (10 and 100 ng on days 0 and 1, respectively), and the contralateral joint was similarly injected with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), nitric oxide (NO), and protein concentrations and leukocyte counts were analyzed before and at intervals after injections.
Results—Administration of the DN (up to 75 g/d) to horses for 84 days did not induce any adverse effects. In the other experiment, synovial fluid PGE2, GAG, and protein concentrations and leukocyte count increased after intra-articular injections of IL-1β (compared with effects of saline solution injections) in horses that received no DN; NO concentration was not affected. In horses that were fed the DN, intra-articular IL-1β injections did not induce significant increases in synovial fluid PGE2 and GAG concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that administration of the DN may be useful in preventing inflammation associated with arthritis and degenerative joint disease in horses.
Objective—To characterize hematologic and clinical
consequences of chronic dietary consumption of
freeze-dried garlic at maximum voluntary intake in
Animals—4 healthy sex- and age-matched horses.
Procedure—An initial garlic dose (0.05 g/kg, twice
daily) was fed to 2 horses in a molasses carrier as
part of their normal ration and was gradually
increased to maximum voluntary intake (0.25 g/kg,
twice daily) over 41 days. Dietary supplementation
then continued for a total of 71 days. Two control
horses were fed molasses with no garlic with their
ration. Blood samples were collected weekly and
analyzed for hematologic and biochemical changes,
including the presence of Heinz bodies. Recovery of
affected blood values was followed for 5 weeks
after termination of dietary supplementation with
Results—At a daily dose of > 0.2 g/kg, horses fed garlic
developed hematologic and biochemical indications
of Heinz body anemia, as characterized by
increases in Heinz body score (HBS), mean corpuscular
volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin,
platelet count, and serum unconjugated and total
bilirubin concentrations and decreases in RBC count,
blood hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration, and serum haptoglobin
concentration. Recovery from anemia was largely
complete within 5 weeks after termination of dietary
supplementation with garlic. Heinz body score and
MCV remained high at the end of the 5-week recovery
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses will voluntarily
consume sufficient quantities of garlic to cause
Heinz body anemia. The potential for garlic toxicosis
exists when horses are chronically fed garlic. Further
study is required to determine the safe dietary dose of
garlic in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:457–465)