Objective—To compare serum concentrations of
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-[OH]2D3) and
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-[OH]D3) in healthy
control dogs and dogs with naturally occurring
acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure
Animals—24 control dogs, 10 dogs with ARF, and 40
dogs with CRF.
Procedure—Serum concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3
were measured by use of a quantitative radioimmunoassay,
and serum concentrations of 25-
(OH)D3 were measured by use of a protein-binding
Results—Mean ± SD serum concentration of 1,25-
(OH)2D3 was 153 ± 50 pmol/L in control dogs, 75 ± 25
pmol/L in dogs with ARF, and 93 ± 67 pmol/L in dogs
with CRF. The concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not
differ significantly between dogs with ARF and those
with CRF and was in the reference range in most
dogs; however, the concentration was significantly
lower in dogs with ARF or CRF, compared with the
concentration in control dogs. Mean ± SD concentration
of 25-(OH)D3 was 267 ± 97 nmol/L in control
dogs, 130 ± 82 nmol/L in dogs with ARF, and 84 ± 60
nmol/L in dogs with CRF. The concentration of 25-
(OH)D3 was significantly lower in dogs with ARF or
CRF, compared with the concentration in control
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The concentration
of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was within the reference
range in most dogs with renal failure. Increased
serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone indicated
a relative deficiency of 1,25-(OH)2D3. A
decrease in the serum concentration of 25-(OH)D3 in
dogs with CRF appeared to be attributable to
reduced intake and increased urinary loss. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1161–1166)
Objective—To measure the angles between the patellar ligament and the tibial plateau and between the patellar ligament and the common tangent at the tibiofemoral contact point (TFCP) throughout the full range of motion of the stifle joint in dogs and determine the flexion angles at which the patellar ligament is perpendicular to the tibial plateau or to the common tangent.
Sample Population—16 hind limbs from cadavers of 9 adult dogs without radiographically detectable degenerative joint disease.
Procedures—Mediolateral radiographic views of the stifle joints from full extension through full flexion were obtained (10° increments). Angles between the tibial and femoral long axes (β), between the patellar ligament and the tibial plateau γ), and between the patellar ligament and the common tangent at TFCP (α) were measured. Data were analyzed via simple linear regression.
Results—In canine stifle joints, angles γ and α decreased linearly with increasing flexion (angle β). The patellar ligament was perpendicular to the tibial plateau and perpendicular to the common tangent at the TFCP at 90° and 110° of flexion, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of the conventionally defined tibial plateau, data suggest that at approximately 90° of flexion in stifle joints of dogs, shear force in the sagittal plane exerted on the proximal portion of the tibia shifts the loading from the cranial to the caudal cruciate ligament. Analyses involving the common tangent at the TFCP (a more anatomically representative reference point) identified this crossover point at approximately 110° of joint flexion.
Objective—To describe ultrasonographic appearance of the liver, small and large intestines, and omasum in cows with right displacement of the abomasum (RDA) and with abomasal volvulus (AV) and to determine whether RDA and AV can be differentiated on the basis of ultrasonographic findings.
Animals—17 cows with RDA, 9 cows with AV, and 10 healthy control cows.
Procedures—A linear transducer was used to examine the abomasum, liver, omasum, and small and large intestines from the right side.
Results—The liver was imaged less frequently in cows with RDA or AV, compared with control cows. In 9 cows with RDA or AV, the liver could not be imaged. The small intestine was imaged less frequently in cows with RDA or AV than in control cows; in cows with AV, the small intestine could not be imaged in the 8th, 9th, or 10th intercostal space. The large intestine was imaged less frequently in the 11th and 12th intercostal spaces and the cranial region of the flank in cows with RDA or AV. The omasum was also imaged less frequently in the 8th and 9th intercostal spaces in cows with RDA or AV. Cows with RDA or AV could not be differentiated on the basis of ultrasonographic findings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with control cows, cows with RDA and AV had changes in positioning and therefore extent of ultrasonographic imaging of the liver, omasum, and small and large intestines; however, these findings were not useful in differentiating between cows with RDA and AV.
Objective—To evaluate an electrolyte analyzer for
measurement of ionized calcium (Cai) and magnesium
(Mgi) concentrations in blood, plasma, and
serum; investigate the effect of various factors on
measured values; and establish reference ranges for
Cai and Mgi in dogs.
Animals—30 healthy adult dogs of various breeds.
Procedure—Precision in a measurement series, day-to-day precision, and linearity were used to evaluate
the analyzer. The effects of exposure of serum samples
to air, type of specimen (blood, plasma, or
serum), and storage temperature on sample stability
were assessed. Reference ranges were established
with anaerobically handled serum.
Results—The coefficient of variation for precision in a
measurement series was ≤ 1.5% for both electrolytes
at various concentrations. The Cai and Mgi concentrations
were significantly lower in aerobically handled
serum samples, compared with anaerobically handled
samples. The Cai and Mgi concentrations differed significantly
among blood, plasma, and serum samples.
In anaerobically handled serum, Cai was stable for 24
hours at 22°C, 48 hours at 4°C, and 11 weeks at
–20°C; Mgi was stable for 8 hours at 22°C, < 24 hours
at 4°C, and < 1 week at –20°C. In anaerobically handled
serum, reference ranges were 1.20 to 1.35
mmol/L for Cai and 0.42 to 0.58 mmol/L for Mgi.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The electrolyte
analyzer was suitable for determination of Cai
and Mgi concentrations in dogs. Accurate results
were obtained in anaerobically handled serum samples
analyzed within 8 hours and kept at 22°C. (Am J
Vet Res 2004;65:183–187)
Objective—To measure the angles between the patellar ligament and the tibial plateau and between the patellar ligament and the common tangent at the tibiofemoral contact point (TFCP) in stifle joints of dogs with partial rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) for comparison with data obtained for stifle joints in dogs with intact CrCLs.
Sample Population—60 stifle joints of 54 dogs with surgically confirmed partial CrCL rupture.
Procedures—Mediolateral radiographic views of the stifle joints were obtained, and the angles between the patellar ligament and the conventionally defined tibial plateau (angle γ) and between the patellar ligament and the common tangent to the TFCP (angle α) were measured at incidental stifle joint flexion (angle β) by 2 independent observers. Data underwent linear regression analysis and were compared with findings in joints of dogs without degenerative joint disease.
Results—In stifle joints of dogs with a partial rupture of the CrCL, angles γ and α were 5° and 2° larger than each corresponding angle in healthy canine joints. At 100° of flexion, the patellar ligament was perpendicular to the conventionally defined tibial plateau. At 110° of flexion, the patellar ligament was perpendicular to the common tangent at the TFCP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, stifle joints with partially ruptured CrCLs have marginally larger angles between the patellar ligament and the tibial plateau, compared with joints with intact CrCLs; at equivalent angles of flexion, comparatively greater shear force affects the CrCLs in stifle joints with partial CrCL ruptures.
Objective—To evaluate mediolateral radiographic views of stifle joints to identify conforma-tional differences between athletically sound dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD).
Sample Population—Radiographic images of 50 stifle joints of 43 dogs with surgically confirmed CCLD and 50 stifle joints of 38 dogs without clinical signs of stifle joint disease.
Procedures—Mediolateral radiographic views of stifle joints were obtained, and long axes of the femur, tibia, and femoral condyles were measured. Angles between long axes of the femur and femoral condyle and between long axes of the femur and tibia were measured. Circles were drawn representing the joint surface of femoral condyles (circle 1), area of contact on the tibial plateau (circle 2), and femoral trochlea (circle 3). Radii of circles 1, 2 (line F), and 3 were measured. Distances between midpoints of circles 1 and 2 (line K) and between midpoint of circle 2 and most cranial aspect of the tibial tuberosity (line G) were measured. To evaluate differences in conformation that could lead to CCLD, quotients derived from measurements were created for comparison; angles were compared between dog groups.
Results—Significant differences were found in the quotients created by the lengths of lines G and F and lines G and K between dogs with and without CCLD.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No anatomic differences were detected in the distal portion of the femur between dogs with and without CCLD. Development of the tibial tuberosity and shape (convexity) of tibial condyles may be relevant in the pathogenesis of CCLD.
Objective—To determine milk flow, somatic cell
counts (SCCs), and the incidence of clinical mastitis in
cows that had undergone theloresectoscopy for treatment
of teat stenosis caused by mucosal detachment
in the region of the streak canal or Fürstenberg's
Animals—52 cows with teat stenosis that were
treated via theloresectoscopy.
Procedure—Medical records of eligible cows were
reviewed. Additional data regarding milking ease,
SCC, development of clinical mastitis of the affected
gland, and whether the cow remained in the herd
were collected via owner-completed questionnaires.
Results—49 of 52 questionnaires were completed.
At referral, teat sinusitis was diagnosed in 29 of 52
cows. Milk flow was normal in 38 of 41 treated teats
at discharge and in 24 of 40 during the next lactation.
Thirteen of 49 cows were culled during the next lactation
because of abnormal udder health. High SCC
and teat sinusitis at referral and development of clinical
mastitis during the 10-day period after surgery
resulted in high SCCs in the remainder of the current
lactation. The incidence of clinical mastitis during the
remainder of the current and during the next lactation
was higher in cows that had teat sinusitis at the time
of surgery, compared with those that did not.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Teat stenoses
resulting from mucosal lesions in the region of the
streak canal or Fürstenberg's rosette may be successfully
treated via theloresectoscopy. Inflammation
of the teat sinus and gland at the time of surgery may
adversely affect udder health. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1119–1123)
Objective—To evaluate long-term success of endoscopic
injection of collagen into the urethral submucosa
in female dogs with urinary incontinence caused
by urethral sphincter incompetence.
Animals—40 incontinent female dogs.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for outcome
and other results for dogs in which a cystoscope
was passed into the urethra for deposition of 3
collagen deposits into the submucosa.
Results—27 (68%) dogs were continent for 1 to 64
months (mean, 17 months) after the collagen injection.
In another 10 dogs, incontinence improved and in 6 of
these dogs, full continence was regained with administration
of additional medication. In 3 dogs, incontinence
was unchanged. As long as 12 months after
injection, there was a deterioration in the initial result in
16 dogs, after which their condition stabilized. Mild and
transient adverse effects developed in 6 (15%) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-term success
of endoscopic injection of collagen was satisfactory.
Relapse of incontinence might be caused by flattening
of the collagen deposits rather than resorption of
the collagen. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:73–76)