Objective—To identify factors affecting prognosis,
outcome, and complications associated with pemphigus
foliaceus in dogs.
Animals—43 dogs with pemphigus foliaceus.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment,
age at diagnosis, duration to diagnosis, body
area affected, initial immunosuppressive regimens
and concurrent use of antimicrobials and sucralfate or
histamine receptor 2 blocking agent, adverse effects
of treatment, duration of treatment, number of visits
for follow-up care, cause of death, and credentials of
the veterinarians responsible for continued care.
Results—The case fatality rate was 60.5%. Factors
significantly correlated with survival time included
concurrent use of antimicrobials during initiation of
immunosuppressive treatment and a lower number
of adverse effects to treatment. Treatment times lasting
more than 10 months from diagnosis correlated
significantly with survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with
or prophylactic use of antimicrobials may be warranted
during initial immunosuppressive treatment. The inverse
correlation between survival time and number of
adverse treatment effects was not unexpected because
it was reflective of the owners' decision to euthanatize
their dogs and of corticosteroid-related secondary diseases.
Survival beyond the tenth month of treatment
predicted long-term survival, which suggests that dogs
require careful management during the early months of
treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1312–1316)
Objective—To determine clinical and clinicopathologic
features of a chronic intermittent severe hemolytic
anemia characterized by erythrocyte osmotic fragility
in Abyssinian and Somali cats.
Animals—13 Abyssinian and 5 Somali cats.
Procedures—History, pedigree information, and
results of routine laboratory tests, special erythrocyte
studies, and histologic evaluation of splenic and
hepatic specimens were analyzed.
Results—Age at which clinical signs of anemia were
first apparent ranged from 6 months to 5 years. Ten
cats had splenomegaly. Most often, the PCV was
between 15 and 25%, but it was as low as 5% at some
times. The anemia was characterized by macrocytosis
and mild to moderate reticulocytosis, but no poikilocytosis.
Hyperglobulinemia, lymphocytosis, mild hyperbilirubinemia,
and high hepatic enzyme activities were
common findings. Results of Coombs tests and tests
for infectious diseases were negative. The erythrocytic
osmotic fragility was high in affected cats (mean
osmotic fragility, 0.66 to 0.78%), compared with
healthy cats (0.48 to 0.58). No specific membrane protein
abnormality, erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, or
hemoglobinopathy was identified. Histologic evaluation
of splenic and hepatic specimens revealed
extramedullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis.
Four of the 5 Somali cats were closely related.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of
results of pedigree analyses, the apparent breed
predilection, and the exclusion of other known causes of
anemia in cats, we believe that the hemolytic anemia in
these cats was likely a result of a novel hereditary erythrocyte
defect. A genetic predisposition to immunemediated
destruction of erythrocytes could not be ruled
out. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1483–1491)
Objective—To reexamine (via immunohistochemical techniques) canine tissue samples that had been previously classified as gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomas (GILMSs), identify and differentiate gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) from GILMSs, and compare the biological behavior and clinical course of GISTs and GILMSs in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of 42 dogs for which a histologic diagnosis of GILMS was confirmed were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, results of initial diagnostic tests, surgical findings, adjunctive treatment, location of the tumor, completeness of resection, and outcome after surgery. Archived tumor tissue specimens from each dog were restained via immunohistochemical techniques to differentiate tumor types. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from the medical record or through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians.
Results—On the basis of immunohistochemical findings, 28 of 42 tumors were reclassified as GISTs and 4 were reclassified as undifferentiated sarcomas; 10 tumors were GILMSs. In dogs, GISTs developed more frequently in the cecum and large intestine and GILMSs developed more frequently in the stomach and small intestine. Median survival times for dogs with GISTs and GILMSs were 11.6 and 7.8 months, respectively; if only dogs surviving the perioperative period were considered, median survival times were 37.4 and 7.8 months, respectively. These differences, however, were not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, many previously diagnosed GILMSs should be reclassified as GISTs on the basis of results of immunohistochemical staining. The biological behavior of these tumors appears to be different.