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  • Author or Editor: Michael H. Goldschmidt x
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Objective—To identify factors affecting prognosis, outcome, and complications associated with pemphigus foliaceus in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs with pemphigus foliaceus.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, age at diagnosis, duration to diagnosis, body area affected, initial immunosuppressive regimens and concurrent use of antimicrobials and sucralfate or histamine receptor 2 blocking agent, adverse effects of treatment, duration of treatment, number of visits for follow-up care, cause of death, and credentials of the veterinarians responsible for continued care.

Results—The case fatality rate was 60.5%. Factors significantly correlated with survival time included concurrent use of antimicrobials during initiation of immunosuppressive treatment and a lower number of adverse effects to treatment. Treatment times lasting more than 10 months from diagnosis correlated significantly with survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with or prophylactic use of antimicrobials may be warranted during initial immunosuppressive treatment. The inverse correlation between survival time and number of adverse treatment effects was not unexpected because it was reflective of the owners' decision to euthanatize their dogs and of corticosteroid-related secondary diseases. Survival beyond the tenth month of treatment predicted long-term survival, which suggests that dogs require careful management during the early months of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1312–1316)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical and clinicopathologic features of a chronic intermittent severe hemolytic anemia characterized by erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Abyssinian and Somali cats.

Design—Case series.

Animals—13 Abyssinian and 5 Somali cats.

Procedures—History, pedigree information, and results of routine laboratory tests, special erythrocyte studies, and histologic evaluation of splenic and hepatic specimens were analyzed.

Results—Age at which clinical signs of anemia were first apparent ranged from 6 months to 5 years. Ten cats had splenomegaly. Most often, the PCV was between 15 and 25%, but it was as low as 5% at some times. The anemia was characterized by macrocytosis and mild to moderate reticulocytosis, but no poikilocytosis. Hyperglobulinemia, lymphocytosis, mild hyperbilirubinemia, and high hepatic enzyme activities were common findings. Results of Coombs tests and tests for infectious diseases were negative. The erythrocytic osmotic fragility was high in affected cats (mean osmotic fragility, 0.66 to 0.78%), compared with healthy cats (0.48 to 0.58). No specific membrane protein abnormality, erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, or hemoglobinopathy was identified. Histologic evaluation of splenic and hepatic specimens revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis. Four of the 5 Somali cats were closely related.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of results of pedigree analyses, the apparent breed predilection, and the exclusion of other known causes of anemia in cats, we believe that the hemolytic anemia in these cats was likely a result of a novel hereditary erythrocyte defect. A genetic predisposition to immunemediated destruction of erythrocytes could not be ruled out. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1483–1491)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To reexamine (via immunohistochemical techniques) canine tissue samples that had been previously classified as gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomas (GILMSs), identify and differentiate gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) from GILMSs, and compare the biological behavior and clinical course of GISTs and GILMSs in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—42 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of 42 dogs for which a histologic diagnosis of GILMS was confirmed were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, results of initial diagnostic tests, surgical findings, adjunctive treatment, location of the tumor, completeness of resection, and outcome after surgery. Archived tumor tissue specimens from each dog were restained via immunohistochemical techniques to differentiate tumor types. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from the medical record or through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—On the basis of immunohistochemical findings, 28 of 42 tumors were reclassified as GISTs and 4 were reclassified as undifferentiated sarcomas; 10 tumors were GILMSs. In dogs, GISTs developed more frequently in the cecum and large intestine and GILMSs developed more frequently in the stomach and small intestine. Median survival times for dogs with GISTs and GILMSs were 11.6 and 7.8 months, respectively; if only dogs surviving the perioperative period were considered, median survival times were 37.4 and 7.8 months, respectively. These differences, however, were not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, many previously diagnosed GILMSs should be reclassified as GISTs on the basis of results of immunohistochemical staining. The biological behavior of these tumors appears to be different.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association