Objective—To evaluate fecal concentrations of
selected genera of colonic bacteria in healthy dogs,
and to investigate effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides
(FOS) on those bacterial populations.
Animals—6 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2
groups of 3 and fed an unsupplemented diet for 370
days. After 88 days, fecal samples were collected.
Another fecal sample was collected from each dog
282 days later. Group A then received a diet supplemented
with FOS, and group B continued to receive
the unsupplemented diet. Twenty-eight to 29 days
later, fecal samples were collected. Diets were
switched between groups, and fecal samples were
collected 31 and 87 days later. Concentrations of
Bifidobacterium spp, Lactobacillus spp, Clostridium
spp, Bacteroides spp, and Escherichia coli in freshly
collected feces were determined. Effects of diet and
time on bacterial concentrations were compared
Results—Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus spp
were inconsistently isolated from feces of dogs fed
either diet. Sequence of diet significantly affected
number of Bacteroides spp subsequently isolated
from feces, but diet had no effect on numbers of
Clostridium spp or E coli.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Some genera
of bacteria (eg, Bifidobacterium) believed to be common
components of colonic microflora may be only
sporadically isolated from feces of healthy dogs. This
deviation from expected fecal flora may have implications
for the effectiveness of supplementing diets
with prebiotics. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Objective—To evaluate quality of duodenal tissue
specimens obtained endoscopically from dogs and
cats and submitted to 1 of 2 diagnostic laboratories
Sample Population—Slides from 50 consecutive
canine and 50 consecutive feline endoscopically
obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to
laboratory 1 and 49 consecutive canine and 46 consecutive
feline specimens submitted to laboratory 2.
Procedure—Slides were examined independently by
3 investigators, and each tissue piece on each slide
was classified as clearly inadequate, questionable, or
clearly adequate on the basis of 4 criteria. An overall
score was then assigned to the slide.
Results—Slides from laboratory 1 were more likely to
be scored as clearly adequate and less likely to be
scored as clearly inadequate than slides from laboratory
2. Clearly adequate slides from laboratory 1 had
a higher number of clearly adequate pieces of tissue
than did clearly adequate slides from laboratory 2.
Slides scored as clearly adequate had a higher number
of individual tissue pieces than did slides scored
as clearly inadequate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the quality of endoscopically obtained duodenal
tissue specimens submitted to laboratories can
vary, possibly because of differences in experience of
individuals collecting biopsy specimens. Results suggest
that at least 8 individual tissue pieces should be
submitted when performing endoscopic biopsy of the
duodenum in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate stability of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in serum samples and to determine the effect of long-term administration of prednisone on serum cPLI concentrations.
Sample Population—8 canine serum samples for the stability evaluation and serum samples obtained from 6 healthy young adult heterozygous (carrier) dogs with X-linked hereditary nephritis for determining the effect of prednisone administration.
Procedures—To evaluate stability of serum cPLI concentration, an aliquot of each serum sample was stored at each of 4 temperatures between −80° and 24°C; samples were analyzed on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21. To determine the effect of long-term prednisone administration, pretreatment serum samples were obtained (days 0 and 14) and prednisone was administered (2.2 mg/kg, q 24 h, PO) on days 15 through 42, with serum samples obtained on days 28 and 42. Additional serum samples were obtained on days 56 and 70.
Results—Mean serum cPLI concentrations did not change significantly from day 0 to day 21 regardless of storage temperature. Serum cPLI concentrations in dogs after prednisone administration were within the reference range for all dogs at all time points, and results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that serum cPLI concentrations did not change significantly over time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum cPLI concentrations measured in canine serum samples stored at room temperature, in a refrigerator, or in a freezer at −20° or −80°C were stable for at least 21 days. Also, long-term prednisone administration to dogs did not significantly affect serum cPLI concentrations.
Objective—To determine whether substantial interobserver
variation exists among diagnostic pathologists
for descriptions of intestinal mucosal cell populations
and whether histopathologic descriptions
accurately predict when a patient does not have clinically
evident intestinal disease.
Sample Population—14 histologic slides of duodenal,
ileal, or colonic tissue from 10 dogs and 3
Procedure—Each histologic slide was evaluated
independently by 5 pathologists at 4 institutions.
Pathologists, who had no knowledge of the tissues'
origin, indicated whether slides were adequate for
histologic evaluation and whether the tissue was normal
or abnormal. They also identified the main infiltrating
cell type in specimens that were considered
abnormal, and whether infiltrates were mild, moderate,
severe, or neoplastic.
Results—Quality of all slides was considered adequate
or superior by at least 4 of the 5 pathologists.
For intensity of mucosal cellular infiltrates, there was
uniformity of opinion for 1 slide, near-uniformity for 6
slides, and nonuniformity for 7 slides. Five dogs did
not have clinical evidence of intestinal disease, yet
the pathologists' descriptions indicated that their
intestinal tissue specimens were abnormal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial
interobserver variation was detected. Standardization
of pathologic descriptions of intestinal tissue is necessary
for meaningful comparisons with published
articles. Clinicians must be cautious about correlating
clinical signs and histopathologic descriptions of
intestinal biopsy specimens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the impact of successive days of endurance exercise on select serum chemistry values in conditioned Alaskan sled dogs.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—10 conditioned Alaskan sled dogs.
Procedures—All dogs ran 160 km/d for 5 consecutive days. Serum was obtained prior to exercise and immediately after each exercise run; all samples were obtained before dogs were fed. Serum electrolyte, mineral, protein, total bilirubin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and cardiac troponin-I concentrations and serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransfer-ase, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities were measured. Data were analyzed by means of analysis of covariance for a randomized complete block design with dog as a blocking variable, time as a covariate, and distance run as the treatment of interest. Least square mean values were compared with values obtained prior to exercise, and linear and quadratic contrasts were examined.
Results—Serum globulin concentration was low prior to exercise (mean ± SD, 2.2 ± 0.3g/dL) and progressively decreased as exercise continued. Exercise was associated with increases in serum chloride, urea nitrogen, and cardiac troponin-I concentrations and serum alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities and with pro-gressive decreases in serum potassium, total protein, and albumin concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that multiple successive days of endurance exercise resulted in mild aberrations in serum chemistry variables in conditioned sled dogs. Changes likely reflected the metabolic stresses of prolonged endurance exercise as well as dietary composition. Hypoglobulinemia in resting, conditioned sled dogs may reflect the immunosuppressive or catabolic effects of intense endurance training.
Objective—To examine the effect of various clinical tracks within the veterinary medical clinical curriculum at Texas A&M University on clinical diagnostic proficiency as determined by pre- and post-training assessment. We expected that the clinical track chosen by the student would impact their measured outcome with bias toward higher scores in their chosen field.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Study Population—32 students from the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University.
Procedures—By use of standardized, written case scenarios, clinical reasoning was assessed twice: once prior to the clinical (fourth) year of the curriculum and again at completion of the clinical year. Students demonstrated their abilities to collect and organize appropriate clinical data (history, physical examination, and laboratory findings), determine clinical diagnoses, and formulate and implement acceptable treatment modalities. Data from clinical assessments were compared for a given cohort and correlated with other measures (eg, grades, standardized test scores, and species-specific curricular track).
Results—Differences were detected in clinical diagnostic proficiency among students in different clinical tracks and for different species groups in the case scenarios. Tracking by species group in the clinical veterinary curriculum appeared to affect development of clinical reasoning and resulted in differential proficiency among cases for differing species groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in clinical experiences between small animal tracks and all other track opportunities (large animal, mixed animal, and alternative) influenced the development of clinical proficiency in fourth-year veterinary students during their clinical training period.