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  • Author or Editor: Michael D. Tokach x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effect of various regimens for administration of antimicrobials in feed on growth rate and feed efficiency (feed/gain) of pigs in multisite production systems.

Design—Controlled trial.

Animals—24,099 growing pigs in 3 multisite production systems.

Procedure—10 trials involving various regimens for administration of antimicrobials in feed were evaluated. Trial 1 compared effects of 2 antimicrobial regimens on finishing pig performance. Trials 2 through 10 compared growth rate and feed efficiency of nursery and finishing pigs given antimicrobials in feed with values for control pigs not given antimicrobials.

Results—In trial 1, no significant differences were observed between the 2 antimicrobial regimens. In the remaining trials, growth rate of nursery pigs fed antimicrobials was significantly improved, compared with growth rate of control pigs. However, growth rate of finishing pigs and feed efficiency of nursery and finishing pigs were not significantly improved by adding antimicrobials to the feed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of antimicrobials in the feed to promote growth should be limited to the nursery phase in multisite pig production systems. Use of antimicrobials in the feed of finishing pigs should be limited to therapeutic applications in which a diagnosis of bacterial infection susceptible to the antimicrobial to be used has been confirmed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1690–1695)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate dietary ingredients involved in cartilage and bone metabolism and their influence on osteochondrosis lesions in swine.

Animals—80 crossbred gilts (mean initial weight, 39 kg).

Procedures—Pigs (10 pigs/treatment) were fed a corn–soybean meal basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with additional minerals (copper and manganese or silicon), amino acids (proline and glycine; a combination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine; or methionine and threonine), or fatty acids (provided by fish oil) for 84 days. Pigs were then slaughtered and the distal portion of the left femur was collected for determination of osteochondrosis lesions at the femoral condyle. After evaluation of external joint surfaces, the distal portion of the femur was sectioned to evaluate lesions in the growth plate and articular cartilage. Additionally, a cartilage specimen was obtained from the patella for analysis.

Results—Pigs fed diets containing high amounts of methionine and threonine or the diet containing all additional ingredients had significantly lower total severity scores, compared with scores for pigs fed the control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Pigs fed diets containing additional proline and glycine, copper and manganese, methionine and threonine, or all additional ingredients had significantly lower overall scores, compared with scores for pigs fed the control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary manipulation decreased the severity of osteochondrosis lesions, compared with results for pigs fed a control diet. However, additional research on optimal concentrations and combinations of dietary components is needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether segregated, early weaned pigs have better growth performance and different microbial flora than those of pigs raised on-site.

Design

Prospective, observational study.

Animals

Pigs from a commercial operation that were known to be infected with several common swine pathogens.

Procedure

Pigs (7 to 10 days old) were weaned and segregated from the farm of origin and compared with littermate control pigs (14 to 17 days old) that were weaned and raised on-site. Pig weight was measured and microbial flora were isolated at 14-day intervals for 84 days, beginning when the pigs were 7 to 10 days old.

Results

At 50 days of age, the segregated, early weaned pigs had a mean weight of 23.7 kg, compared with a mean weight of 12.5 kg for control pigs. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from fewer segregated, early weaned pigs than from controls. Signs of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection were detected in control pigs but not in segregated early weaned pigs. Clinical, serologic, or bacteriologie signs of early postnatal vertical transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumonias were not detected in either group.

Clinical Implication

Vertical transmission of M hyopneumoniae was prevented by weaning pigs at 7 to 10 days of age and segregating them off-site, without the use of medication. Although medicated controls were not compared, results from this herd revealed that use of antibiotics is not the most important factor for disease control in segregated, early weaning programs. Minimizing antibiotic use in disease-control protocols reduces costs as well as removes the need for extra-label drugs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:711–715)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of serum biomarkers of cartilage and bone metabolism to predict the occurrence and severity of osteochondrosis (OC) lesions in the distal portion of the femur in growing swine.

Animals—71 gilts.

Procedures—At an abattoir, serum samples for analysis of 10 biomarkers indicative of cartilage and bone metabolism were obtained prior to processing of the pigs. The distal portion of each pig's left femur was directly examined and cut into longitudinal sections to evaluate the number and severity of abnormalities on the external surface, articular cartilage, and growth plate. Each specimen was categorized as with (n = 56) or without (15) OC, and an overall OC severity score was assigned to affected pigs. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to predict odds of OC on the basis of biomarker concentrations and predict the severity of OC values in affected pigs, respectively.

Results—Compared with values in unaffected pigs, serum concentrations of C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein were significantly increased and concentrations of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen 3/4-length fragment (C2C) and pyridinoline cross-links were significantly decreased in affected pigs. A 2-fold increase in CPII concentration increased the odds of pigs having OC by a factor of 97 (95% confidence interval, 6 to infinity). Changes in serum C2C concentration accounted for 49% of the variation in overall OC severity score.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assessment of serum biomarker concentrations may be useful in the diagnosis of OC and aid in reduction of lameness in swine herds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research