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Summary

A questionnaire, designed to gather information regarding the use of live animals, cadavers, inanimate models, and other innovative methods to teach veterinary surgery, was mailed to individuals in the surgery sections of all 31 veterinary schools in the United States and Canada. Of the 31 questionnaires mailed, 27 (87%) were completed and returned. Mean number of total, general, small-animal, and large-animal surgery laboratory sessions were 22, 5.9, 11, and 7.4, respectively. At 7 of 26 (27%) schools, animals were euthanatized prior to recovery from anesthesia in all teaching laboratories; in 18 schools (69%), small animals were euthanatized prior to recovery from anesthesia. In 4 (20%) of the 20 schools that offer large-animal laboratory courses, large animals were euthanatized prior to recovery from anesthesia. In 24 schools (88%), cadavers, models, or both were used in at least 1 laboratory session in their surgery training program. Models were used most frequently to teach suturing, knot tying, and hemostasis. Plastic bones were used in 8 (30%) schools to teach fracture repair. In several schools, models were used to teach other general psychomotor skills, and at several schools, models were available for sale to other teaching institutions. At 16 (59%) of the 27 veterinary schools, some type of program has been developed with local humane societies. At 13 (81%) of the 16 schools with such a program, small animals were euthanatized prior to recovery from anesthesia in their traditional laboratories.

At 10 (37%) of the schools, some process was used to evaluate students in the laboratory, and at 5 (19%), course evaluations were completed by students taking the laboratory. In only 4 (15%) of the schools were the effect of various laboratory teaching methods on learning outcomes evaluated.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A questionnaire was mailed to 30 owners of paraplegic dogs who had been caring for their dogs at home for 3 to 72 months. It was designed to collect information on demographic variables, duration of ownership and paralysis, age of the pet, pet/owner relationship, owner expectations and perceptions of the pet's quality of life, problems the pet experienced, effect that maintaining a paralyzed pet had on the owners' quality of life, and whether use of a cart was beneficial.

Significant correlation was found between prior expectations that the pet would lead a high-quality life and perception that the pet, in fact, had a high quality of life during paralysis (r 2 = 0.61, P = 0.01). Owners who had anticipated that extra work would be necessary to care for their paraplegic dog had a more positive attitude toward home care (r 2 = 0.55, P = 0.03).

Overall, owners involved in the study were satisfied with all aspects of maintaining paraplegic dogs at home. Our findings support the feasibility of dedicated owners successfully maintaining small (average body weight, 9 kg) paraplegic dogs at home for extended periods.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a selected set of 20 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from beef cattle populations can be used to verify sample tracking in a commercial slaughter facility that processes primarily market (ie, culled) dairy cows.

Design—Prospective, blinded validation study.

Animals—165 cows and 3 bulls from 18 states (82% Holstein, 8% other dairy breeds, and 10% beef breeds).

Procedure—Blood was collected by venipuncture from randomly chosen animals just prior to slaughter. The purported corresponding liver samples were collected during beef processing, and genotype profiles were obtained for each sample.

Results—On the basis of SNP allele frequencies in these cattle, the mean probability that 2 randomly selected individuals would possess identical genotypes at all 20 loci was 4.3 × 10-8. Thus, the chance of a coincidental genotype match between 2 animals was 1 in 23 million. Genotype profiles confirmed appropriate matching for 152 of the 168 (90.5%) purported bloodliver sample pairs and revealed mismatching for 16 (9.5%) pairs. For the 16 mismatched sample pairs, 33% to 76% of the 20 SNP genotypes did not match (mean, 52%). Discordance that could be attributed to genotyping error was estimated to be < 1% on the basis of results for split samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that this selected set of 20 bovine SNP markers is sufficiently informative to verify accuracy of sample tracking in slaughter plants that process beef or dairy cattle. These or similar SNP markers may facilitate high-throughput, DNA-based, traceback programs designed to detect drug residues in tissues, control of animal diseases, and enhance food safety. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1311–1314)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association