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Objective—To establish reference values for activated coagulation time (ACT) in cats by use of jugular venipuncture and direct collection of blood into ACT vacuum tubes.
Animals—100 clinically normal cats that were to have elective surgery performed at a private practice.
Procedure—Collection of 3 blood samples for ACT measurement was attempted for each cat at the time of elective surgery: sample 1, obtained before sedation; sample 2, tube 1 of 2 consecutive samples obtained from a single venipuncture of the contralateral jugular vein after sedation with acepromazine and ketamine hydrochloride; and sample 3, tube 2 collected immediately following collection of sample 2 without removing the needle from the vein. Venipuncture quality was rated subjectively on a 3- point scale.
Results—Median ACT were 95 seconds for each sample group. The middle 95% of values ranged inclusively from 55 to 185 seconds (sample 1), 65 to 135 seconds (sample 2), 45 to 145 seconds (sample 3), and 55 to 165 seconds overall (samples 1, 2, and 3). Significant differences in ACT values were not detected between sample groups. Significant relationships between ACT and venipuncture quality or sex of cat were not detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With the ACT protocols used, clinically normal cats had ACT of < 165 seconds. The ACT in cats does not appear to be significantly affected by sex, sedation with acepromazine and ketamine, or by moderately traumatic venipunctures. These results refute widespread statements that ACT should be < 65 seconds in healthy cats. Cats with ACT repeatedly > 165 seconds should be further evaluated for hemostatic disorders. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:750–753)
Objective—To determine erythrocyte survival time in Greyhounds.
Animals—6 Greyhounds used as blood donors and 3 privately owned non-Greyhound dogs.
Procedures—In vivo biotinylation of erythrocytes was performed by infusion of biotin—Nhydroxysuccinimide into each dog via a jugular vein catheter. Blood samples were collected 12 hours later and then at weekly intervals and were used to determine the percentage of biotin-labeled erythrocytes at each time point. Erythrocytes were washed, incubated with avidin—fluorescein isothiocyanate, and washed again before the percentage of biotinylated erythrocytes was measured by use of flow cytometry. Survival curves for the percentage of biotinylated erythrocytes were generated, and erythrocyte survival time was defined as the x-intercept of a least squares best-fit line for the linear portion of each curve.
Results—The R for survival curves ranged from 0.93 to 0.99 during the first 10 weeks after infusion of erythrocytes. Erythrocyte survival time for the 3 non-Greyhound dogs was 94, 98, and 116 days, respectively, which was consistent with previously reported values. Erythrocyte survival time for the 6 Greyhounds ranged from 83 to 110 days (mean, 93 days; median, 88 days). As determined by use of in vivo biotinylation, erythrocyte survival times in Greyhounds were similar to those determined for non-Greyhound dogs and did not differ significantly from erythrocyte survival times reported previously for non-Greyhound dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Erythrocyte survival time was similar in Greyhounds and non-Greyhound dogs. Greyhounds can be used as erythrocyte donors without concerns about inherently shorter erythrocyte survival time. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1033–1038)
Objective—To develop a direct assay to measure platelet surface-associated immunoglobulins (PSAIg) in dogs and to determine whether the assay is useful in the diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT).
Animals—20 healthy dogs were used to develop reference intervals, and 23 dogs with IMT and 17 with non-IMT were used to evaluate the clinical use of this assay.
Procedure—After optimization of platelet collection and assay conditions, concentrations of PSAIg were measured, using radiolabeled staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and polyclonal antibodies against canine IgG (anti-γ) and IgM (anti-µ). Concentrations of PSAIg were expressed as the percentage of radiolabeled immunoglobulin detector bound.
Results—Cut-off values (mean + 3 SD) were as follows: SpA, 1.1%; anti-γ, 1.3%; and anti-µ, 3.5%. Values greater than these cut-off values were considered positive. Values determined by use of radiolabeled SpA for all dogs with IMT were greater than the cut-off value; values were considered high positives (> 5 times cut-off value) for 22 of these 23 dogs. Although 9 of 17 dogs with non-IMT also had PSAIg concentrations greater than the cut-off value, values were considered high positives for only 3 of these 9 dogs.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The immunoradiometric assay developed is a reliable and sensitive method to detect PSAIg in dogs. However, to obtain accurate results, optimum temperature, time, and storage conditions must be used. Detection of increased concentrations of PSAIg in dogs presumed to have non-IMT should alert clinicians to reconsider an immune-mediated basis for the thrombocytopenia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:124–136)
Objective—To determine whether platelet clumps are homogeneously distributed in blood samples, and whether platelet concentrations (PC) obtained by use of impedance and buffy coat analysis can be considered minimum values when platelet clumps are present.
Sample Population—50 blood samples obtained from 30 dogs.
Procedure—10 blood samples containing platelet clumps were used and 10 smears were made from each sample; amount of platelet clumping was graded for all 100 smears. Blood from each of 20 healthy dogs was divided between 2 EDTA tubes before and after platelet clumping was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The PC for each ADP-treated and untreated sample were measured, using impedance and quantitative buffy coat analyzers.
Results—Platelet clumps were evident in all 100 blood smears, but the amount of clumping varied considerably within some samples. Using the impedance analyzer, the PC of ADP-treated samples were significantly lower and never higher than the PC of untreated samples. Using the buffy coat analyzer, some ADPtreated samples had increased PC; however, significant differences were not detected between treated and untreated samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelet clumping was not homogeneous within blood samples. When platelet clumps were identified by direct examination of blood smears, the PC detected by use of the impedance analyzer could be considered minimum values. In contrast, the PC detected by use of the buffy coat analyzer were sometimes increased. Useful information can be obtained by measuring PC in blood with platelet clumps; values obtained by use of impedance can be considered minimums, and values obtained by use of buffy coat analysis may be either minimum values or reasonable estimates of PC. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1552–1556)
Objective—To compare the results of regulatory screening and confirmation assays with those of highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the detection of ceftiofur metabolites in the tissues of culled dairy cattle.
Animals—17 lactating Holstein dairy cows.
Procedure—Daily IM injections of ceftiofur sodium were administered at a dose of 2.2 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg (n = 6) or 1.0 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg (10) for 5 days. Following withdrawal times of 12 hours (high-dose ceftiofur) and either 5 or 10 days (low-dose ceftiofur), cows were slaughtered and liver, kidney, and diaphragmatic muscle specimens were harvested and analyzed by HPLC and standard regulatory methods that included the following assays: the swab test on premises, the fast antimicrobial screen test, the calf antibiotic and sulfa test, and the 7-plate bioassay confirmation test.
Results—In all tissue specimens, residues of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites, as measured by HPLC, were less than regulatory tolerance, as defined by the FDA. False-positive screening assay results were more likely for tissue specimens that had been frozen for shipment to a federal laboratory, compared with fresh tissue specimens that were assayed at the slaughter establishment (23% vs 3% false-positive results, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The observation that fresh tissues had negative results on screening assays, whereas subsets of the same tissue specimens had false-positive results on screening assays following freezing, suggests that freezing and thawing interferes with microbial inhibition-based regulatory screening assays. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1730–1733)
Objective—To determine effects of vaccination protocols with modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine on persistence and transmission of virus in pigs infected with a homologous isolate and determine clinical and virologic responses following heterologous viral challenge.
Animals—Four hundred forty 6- to 8-week-old PRRSV-naïve pigs.
Procedures—Pigs were allocated into 5 groups. Groups A to D were inoculated with wild-type PRRSV VR2332. Group A (positive control pigs) received PRRSV only. Groups B, C, and D received modified-live PRRSV vaccine (1, 2, or 3 doses). Group E served as a negative control group. To evaluate viral transmission, sentinel pigs were introduced into each group at intervals from 37 to 67, 67 to 97, and 97 to 127 days postinoculation (DPI). To evaluate persistence, pigs were euthanized at 37, 67, 97, or 127 DPI. To assess clinical and virologic response after challenge, selected pigs from each group were inoculated at 98 DPI with a heterologous isolate (PRRSV MN-184).
Results—Mass vaccination significantly reduced the number of persistently infected pigs at 127 DPI. Vaccination did not eliminate wild-type PRRSV; administration of 2 or 3 doses of modified-live virus vaccine reduced viral shedding after 97 DPI. Previous exposure to wild-type and vaccine virus reduced clinical signs and enhanced growth following heterologous challenge but did not prevent infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that therapeutic vaccination may help to reduce economic losses of PRRSV caused by infection; further studies to define the role of modified-live virus vaccines in control-eradication programs are needed.
OBJECTIVE To develop and characterize flow cytometric assays for detecting IgG bound to canine erythrocytes and bone marrow erythroid precursors.
SAMPLE Blood samples from 20 healthy and 61 sick dogs with (n = 33) or without (28) immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) and bone marrow samples from 14 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES A flow cytometric assay for measurement of IgG on RBCs was developed, and appropriate positive control cells were generated. Analytic and diagnostic performance were characterized. The RBC IgG assay was then combined with density-gradient fractionation of aspirated bone marrow cells and a 2-color process to yield an assay for detecting IgG on nucleated RBCs (nRBCs). Cell sorting and cytologic examination confirmed target cell populations, and anti–dog erythrocyte antigen 1 (DEA1) blood-typing serum was used to generate IgG-positive nRBCs.
RESULTS Within- and between-run coefficients of variation for the RBC IgG assay were 0.1% to 13.9%, and > 90% of spiked IgG-positive RBCs were detected. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detection of IMHA were 88% and 93%, respectively. Cytologic findings for sorted bone marrow fractions rich in early-, mid-, and late-stage nRBCs from 3 healthy dogs indicated 89% to 98% nRBC purity. After IgG coating with anti-DEA1 blood-typing serum, IgG was detected on nRBCs from DEA1-positive, but not DEA1-negative, healthy dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The developed RBC IgG assay had favorable analytic and diagnostic performance for detection of IMHA in dogs and was successfully adapted to detect IgG on canine nRBCs of various maturation stages. The findings supported the presence of DEA1 on canine nRBCs.