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  • Author or Editor: Michael A. Kiselow x
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Objective—To characterize oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic disposition of etoposide when the IV formulation was administered orally to dogs.

Animals—8 tumor-bearing dogs.

Procedures—An open-label, single-dose, 2-way crossover study was conducted. Dogs were randomly assigned to initially receive a single dose of etoposide (50 mg/m2) IV or PO. A second dose was administered via the alternate route 3 to 7 days later. Medications were administered before IV administration of etoposide to prevent hypersensitivity reactions. Oral administration of etoposide was prepared by reconstituting the parenteral formulation with 0.9% NaCl solution and further diluting the reconstituted mixture 1:1 with a sweetening agent. Plasma samples were obtained after both treatments. Etoposide concentrations were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, and plasma etoposide concentration–time profiles were analyzed by use of noncompartmental methods.

Results—4 dogs had hypersensitivity reactions during IV administration of etoposide. No adverse effects were detected after oral administration. Plasma etoposide concentrations were undetectable in 2 dogs after oral administration. Oral administration of etoposide resulted in significantly lower values for the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the plasma etoposide concentration-versus-time curve, compared with results for IV administration. Oral bioavailability of etoposide was low (median, 13.4%) and highly variable among dogs (range, 5.7% to 57.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vehicle-related toxicosis can limit the IV administration of etoposide in dogs. The parenteral formulation of etoposide can be safely administered orally to dogs, but routine use was not supported because of low and variable oral bioavailability in this study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate factors associated with response to treatment, remission duration, and survival in cats with low-grade lymphoma affecting various organ systems.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—41 cats with histologically confirmed low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma.

Procedures—Medical records and biopsy specimens of cats with histologically confirmed low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma of various organ systems treated with prednisone and chlorambucil between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate remission duration and survival. Factors potentially associated with prognosis were compared.

Results—Common clinical signs were weight loss (83%), vomiting (73%), anorexia (66%), and diarrhea (58%). Seventy-eight percent of cats tested had low serum cobalamin concentrations. Lymphoma was confined to the gastrointestinal tract in 68% of cats. Fifty-six percent of cats achieved a complete response to treatment, and 39% achieved a partial response. Five percent of cats had no response. No association was found between any risk factors (including anatomic site) and response to treatment. Partial response was associated with shorter remission duration, compared with complete response; median remission duration was 428 days for cats achieving a partial response, compared with 897 days for cats achieving a complete response. No other factors were associated with remission duration. Overall median survival time was 704 days. No factors were significantly associated with survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats with lymphocytic lymphoma responded to treatment with prednisone and chlorambucil, and most factors evaluated were not associated with outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate survival times for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone.


109 client-owned dogs recruited from 15 institutions in the United States.


Dogs were treated with prednisone at a dosage of 40 mg/m2, PO, once daily for 7 days and at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, PO, once daily thereafter. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by owners with a visual analog scale when treatment was started (day 0), 1 and 2 weeks after treatment was started, and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary outcome of interest was survival time as determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with survival time were examined.


Median overall survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 41 to 59 days). Factors associated with survival time included substage (a vs b) and immunopheno-type (B cell vs T cell). Owner-assigned QOL scores on days 0 and 14 were significantly positively correlated with survival time. When QOL score was dichotomized, dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores ≥ 50 had significantly longer survival times, compared with dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores < 50. No variables were predictive of long-term (> 120 days) survival.


Results suggested that survival times were short for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone. Owner-perceived QOL and clinician-assigned sub-stage were both associated with survival time. Findings provide potentially important information for clinicians to discuss with owners of dogs with lymphoma at the time treatment decisions are made. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:62–71)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association