Objective—To examine whether in vitro treatment with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) restores the phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst activity (OBA) of canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) exposed to methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS).
Sample Population—Peripheral blood PMNs obtained from 12 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—The experimental design involved administration of a high dose of MPSS, which is the recommended protocol for dogs with acute spinal cord injury. To evaluate PMN function, blood samples were collected from dogs before IV injections of doses of MPSS or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (time 0) and 2, 12, and 24 hours after injections ceased. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes were isolated from blood samples and incubated with t10c12-CLA alone or t10c12-CLA in combination with N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant agent). Phagocytic capacity and OBA were measured simultaneously by use of flow cytometry.
Results—The phagocytic capacity and OBA of PMNs were suppressed by IV injection of MPSS and restored 12 hours after injection ceased. In vitro treatment with t10c12-CLA enhanced the phagocytic capacity and OBA of PMNs, regardless of whether dogs had been treated with MPSS. Effects of t10c12-CLA on OBA were detected only when phagocytosis was stimulated by microspheres. Use of N-acetylcysteine attenuated the stimulatory effects of t10c12-CLA.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to t10c12-CLA enhanced the phagocytic capacity and OBA of canine PMNs, and this effect may have involved t10c12-CLA–induced generation of reactive oxygen species.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 5/group): 38-hour IV infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group), saline solution with 8.5% amino acids (2.3 g/kg/d), or saline solution with 8.5% amino acids (1.8 g/kg/d) and 20% l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln; 0.5 g/kg/d). High-dose MPSS treatment was initiated at the same time that IV infusions began, such that a total dose of 85 mg of MPSS/kg was administered through multiple IV injections over a 26-hour period. The infusions were maintained until 12 hours after the last MPSS injection. Blood samples collected before MPSS injections began and 2, 12, and 24 hours after injections ceased were used to evaluate PMN function.
Results—MPSS injections resulted in an increase in the total number of circulating leukocytes and increases in neutrophil and monocyte counts but did not affect lymphocyte, eosinophil, or basophil counts. Lymphocyte counts in the Ala-Gln group were higher than in the control group 12 hours after MPSS injections finished. Relative to preinfusion values, phagocytic capacity, oxidative burst activity, and filamentous actin polymerization of PMNs were suppressed in all dogs except those that received Ala-Gln.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenteral Ala-Gln administration in dogs resulted in an increase in PMN phagocytic responses that were suppressed by high-dose MPSS treatment.
OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM).
ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6). Serum CCK concentrations were then measured before and 1, 2, and 4 hours after consumption of a high-fat meal. Concentrations in dogs with PDH were also measured before and after trilostane treatment. Results were compared among groups and assessment points.
RESULTS Preprandial serum CCK concentrations in group C were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, and D, but no significant differences in postprandial CCK concentrations were identified among the groups 1, 2, or 4 hours after the meal. With respect to trilostane treatment of dogs with PDH, no significant differences were identified between pre- and post-trilostane serum CCK concentrations in group C or D. Median CCK concentration after trilostane treatment was higher in group D than in group C, but this difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcomes in this study did not support the hypothesis that a low circulating CCK concentration affects the development of GBM in dogs with PDH.
To determine effects of hydrocortisone administration on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations, abdominal fat distribution, and mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin in abdominal adipose tissue of dogs.
12 healthy dogs.
Dogs received hydrocortisone (8.5 mg/kg; n = 6) or a placebo (6) orally every 12 hours for 90 days. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured with a canine-specific ELISA on the day before (day 0; baseline) and during (days 1, 3, 7, 30, 60, and 90) administration. On days 0, 30, 60, and 90, abdominal fat mass was quantified with CT, and mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin in abdominal fat was analyzed by use of a PCR assay.
Hydrocortisone administration resulted in an increase in visceral fat mass on days 60 and 90, compared with the mass at baseline. Visceral fat mass at the level of L3 increased during hydrocortisone administration. Serum leptin concentration began to increase on day 1 and was significantly higher than the baseline concentration on days 30 and 60. Serum adiponectin concentration on days 30, 60, and 90 was significantly lower than the baseline concentration. Leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression in abdominal fat was greater on day 30, compared with expression at baseline, but lower on days 60 and 90, compared with expression on day 30. Serum leptin concentration and visceral fat mass were correlated.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Hydrocortisone administration affected abdominal fat distribution and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations through dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression.
To investigate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).
106 dogs with MMVD and 22 healthy dogs were included in the study.
CBC data were obtained retrospectively, and NLR, MLR, and PLR were compared between dogs with MMVD and healthy dogs. The ratios were also analyzed according to MMVD severity.
NLR and MLR were significantly higher in dogs with MMVD C and D (NLR of 4.99 [3.69–7.27]; MLR of 0.56 [0.36–0.74]) than in healthy dogs (NLR: 3.05 [1.82–3.37], P < .001; MLR: 0.21 [0.14–0.32], P < .001), MMVD stage B1 (NLR: 3.15 [2.15–3.86], P < .001; MLR: 0.26 [0.20–0.36], P < .001), and MMVD stage B2 dogs (NLR: 3.22 [2.45–3.85], P < .001; MLR: 0.30 [0.19–0.37], P < .001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the NLR and MLR to distinguish dogs with MMVD C and D from those with MMVD B were 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. The optimal cutoff value for NLR was 4.296 (sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 83.95%), and the MLR value was 0.322 (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 66.67%). NLR and MLR were significantly decreased after treatment in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF).
NLR and MLR can be used as adjunctive indicators of CHF in dogs.