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  • Author or Editor: Merlyn J. Lucas x
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Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur crystalline- free acid (CCFA) administered into the posterior aspect of an ear for treatment of corneal ulceration associated with naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

Animals—78 beef calves located at Sierra Foothills Field Station (SFS) and 52 calves located at a commercial dairy (CD). All calves were from 3 to 9 months old.

Procedure—At each site, calves were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups by use of a block design determined by corneal ulcer size. A single dose of CCFA (6.6 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg, SC) was administered into the posterior aspect of a pinna. A second group of calves received a single dose of vehicle (0.03 mL/kg, SC; controls). Corneal ulcers were photographed, and clinical signs were assessed in calves every 3 to 4 days for 21 days.

Results—A positive treatment effect was detected at SFS. Results at the CD were inconclusive because ulcer healing occurred rapidly in control and CCFA-treated calves. At SFS, treatment with CCFA resulted in shorter mean healing times, smaller corneal ulcer surface area measurements, amelioration of ocular discharge and photophobia, and a 50% increase in the percentage of calves healed by day 14. After adjustment for initial corneal ulcer size, treatment with CCFA resulted in a 4-fold increase in the odds of corneal ulcer healing by day 14, compared with controls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of CCFA administered into the posterior aspect of a pinna had a positive treatment effect against naturally occurring IBK in calves with corneal ulcerations . (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1185–1188)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of tulathromycin in vitro and in experimental models of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae–induced pleuropneumonia and zymosan-induced pulmonary inflammation in pigs.

ANIMALS Blood samples from six 8- to 30-week-old healthy male pigs for the in vitro experiment and sixty-five 3-week-old specific pathogen–free pigs.

PROCEDURES Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from blood samples. Isolated cells were exposed to tulathromycin (0.02 to 2.0 mg/mL) for various durations and assessed for markers of apoptosis and efferocytosis. For in vivo experiments, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A pleuropneumoniae, zymosan, or PBS solution (control group) with or without tulathromycin pretreatment (2.5 mg/kg, IM). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 3 and 24 hours after inoculation and analyzed for proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte apoptosis, and efferocytosis.

RESULTS In vitro, tulathromycin induced time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in neutrophils, which enhanced their subsequent clearance by macrophages. In the lungs of both A pleuropneumoniae– and zymosan-challenged pigs, tulathromycin promoted leukocyte apoptosis and efferocytosis and inhibited proinflammatory leukotriene B4 production, with a concurrent reduction in leukocyte necrosis relative to that of control pigs. Tulathromycin also attenuated the degree of lung damage and lesion progression in A pleuropneumoniae–inoculated pigs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Tulathromycin had immunomodulatory effects in leukocytes in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in pigs in experimental models of A pleuropneumoniae infection and nonmicrobial-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data suggested that in addition to its antimicrobial properties, tulathromycin may dampen severe proinflammatory responses and drive resolution of inflammation in pigs with microbial pulmonary infections.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research