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To evaluate the effect of UV germicidal irradiation of the air on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in kittens in a nursery.


4- to 8-week-old kittens admitted to a kitten nursery in 2016 and 2018.


2 UV germicidal irradiation systems (1 within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system and 1 attached to the ceiling) were installed in a kitten nursery. Data were collected on the number of kittens in which a URI was diagnosed by means of a physical examination. The incidence of URIs was compared between 2016, when no UV systems were used, and 2018, when the UV systems were used.


The overall incidence of URIs in 2016 was 12.4 cases/100 kitten admissions and in 2018 was 1.6 cases/100 kitten admissions, a significant decrease of 87.1% between the years.


A significant reduction in the incidence of URIs in kittens in a nursery was noted when the UV germicidal irradiation systems were used. Therefore, airborne transmission of feline respiratory pathogens may be more important than has been previously recognized. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation systems that disinfect the air may be an effective adjunct to standard infection prevention and control protocols in reducing the risk of the transmission of respiratory pathogens among kittens in nurseries and shelters. However, additional studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in purebred beef cattle in Texas and identify risk factors for seropositivity.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Animals—4,579 purebred cattle from 115 beef ranches in Texas.

Procedure—Blood was collected, and serum was analyzed for antibodies with a commercial ELISA. Fecal samples were collected and frozen at −80°C until results of the ELISA were obtained, and feces from seropositive cattle were submitted for mycobacterial culture. Herd owners completed a survey form on management factors.

Results—Results of the ELISA were positive for 137 of the 4,579 (3.0%) cattle, and 50 of the 115 (43.8%) herds had at least 1 seropositive animal. Results of mycobacterial culture were positive for 10 of the 137 (7.3%) seropositive cattle, and 9 of the 50 (18%) seropositive herds had at least 1 animal for which results of mycobacterial culture were positive. Risk factors for seropositivity included water source, use of dairy-type nurse cows, previous clinical signs of paratuberculosis, species of cattle (Bos taurus vs Bos indicus), and location.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that seroprevalence of paratuberculosis among purebred beef cattle in Texas may be greater than seroprevalence among beef cattle in the United States as a whole; however, this difference could be attributable to breed or regional differences in infection rates or interference by cross-reacting organisms. Veterinarians should be aware of risk factors for paratuberculosis as well as the possibility that unexpected serologic results may be found in some herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:773–778)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association