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To characterize how class rank and other criteria are used to evaluate applicants for veterinary internship and residency positions.
Program directors for 572 internship and residency programs.
A survey was sent to program directors asking them to score the importance of 7 items (cover letter, letters of reference, curriculum vitae, veterinary class rank, grade point average, grades for classes specifically related to the internship or residency specialty area, and interview) they could use in evaluating applicants for an internship or residency and to rank those 7 items, along with an open item asking participants to list other criteria they used, from most to least important.
Responses were obtained for 195 internship and 222 residency programs. For both internship programs and residency programs, mean importance scores assigned to the 7 items resulted in the same ordering from most to least important, with letters of reference, interview, curriculum vitae, and cover letter most important. Rankings of the importance of the 7 items, along with an “other” item, were similar for internship and residency programs; the most important item was a candidate's letters of reference, followed by the interview, cover letter, and curriculum vitae.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that although most veterinary internship and residency programs consider class rank and overall grade point average when evaluating applicants, these 2 items were not the most important. For both internship and residency programs, the most important items were an applicant's letters of reference, followed by the interview, cover letter, and curriculum vitae.
Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy.
Animals—5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system.
Procedure—Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed.
Results—Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:560–566)