To determine the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following oral administration of a generic levofloxacin tablet and IV administration to dogs and whether the achieved plasma levofloxacin concentration would be sufficient to treat susceptible bacterial infections.
6 healthy adult Beagles.
Levofloxacin was administered orally as a generic 250-mg tablet (mean dose, 23.7 mg/kg) or IV as a solution (15 mg/kg) to each dog in a crossover study design, with treatments separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Blood samples were collected at various points for measurement of plasma levofloxacin concentration via high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with compartmental modeling.
After oral administration of the levofloxacin tablet, mean (coefficient of variation) peak plasma concentration was 15.5 μg/mL (23.8%), mean elimination half-life was 5.84 hours (20.0%), and mean bioavailability was 104% (29.0%). After IV administration, mean elimination half-life (coefficient of variation) was 6.23 hours (14.7%), systemic clearance was 145.0 mL/kg/h (22.2%), and volume of distribution was 1.19 L/kg (17.1%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In these dogs, levofloxacin was well absorbed when administered orally, and a dose of approximately 25 mg/kg was sufficient to reach pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic targets for treating infections with susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (ie, ≤ 0.5 μg/mL) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ie, ≤ 1 μg/mL) according to clinical breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
To evaluate the effects of housing environment on oral absorption of acetaminophen in dogs.
6 healthy Beagles.
Acetaminophen (325 mg, PO; mean dose, 31.1 mg/kg) was administered in a crossover study design with dogs housed in their normal environment or in a cage in an unfamiliar environment. There was a 7-day washout period between phases. Blood samples were collected for 24 hours following acetaminophen administration, and plasma acetaminophen concentrations were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography.
A 2-compartment model with lag time was the best fit for both phases of the study. None of the primary or secondary pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly different between the 2 housing environments.
Findings suggested that in dogs, housing environment (normal environment vs a cage in an unfamiliar environment) did not significantly affect oral absorption and, by extension, gastric emptying of acetaminophen.