Objective—To evaluate in vitro biological activity of gemcitabine, alone and in combination with Pamidronate or carboplatin, against canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cell lines.
Sample Population—In vitro cultures of OSA cell lines OSA8, OSA16, OSA32, and OSA36.
Procedures—Cell lines were treated with gemcitabine alone or in combination with pamidronate or carboplatin. Cell viability was assessed with the water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay, cell cycle distribution was evaluated by means of propidium iodide staining, and apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase-3/7 activity. Synergy was quantified by use of combination index (CI) analysis.
Results—For all of the cell lines, treatment with gemcitabine induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. No synergistic or additive activity was identified when OSA cell lines were treated with gemcitabine in combination with pamidronate. However, when OSA cell lines were treated with gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed, compared with treatment with carboplatin alone, and the drug combination was determined to be synergistic on the basis of results of CI analysis. For 3 of the 4 cell lines, this activity was greater when cells were treated with carboplatin prior to gemcitabine rather than with gemcitabine prior to carboplatin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gemcitabine exhibited biological activity against canine OSA cell lines in vitro, and a combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin exhibited synergistic activity at biologically relevant concentrations. Findings support future clinical trials of gemcitabine alone or in combination with carboplatin for the treatment of dogs with OSA.