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To identify a method for developing antibiograms for use in companion animal private practices (PPs).


Reports (n = 532) of aerobic bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2018, at 11 PPs and 1 academic primary care practice (APCP).


Data extracted from reports included patient identification number, laboratory accession number, patient signalment, collection method, body site, and results of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A custom antibiogram was then constructed with the help of commonly available software by adapting methods used by human hospitals. Susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated by PPs and the APCP were compared to identify challenges associated with collating data from multiple laboratories.


4 bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius) and 3 bacterial groups (Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp) met the minimum requirement of ≥ 15 isolates for construction of an antibiogram. For urine samples, 3 bacterial species and 2 bacterial groups met the minimum requirement of ≥ 10 isolates. For samples from skin, 2 bacterial species and 2 bacterial groups met the minimum requirement of ≥ 10 isolates. Patient signalment, sample source, and distribution of bacterial isolates were similar between PP and APCP patients.


Results demonstrated that it was feasible to adapt existing guidelines for developing antibiograms in human medicine to the veterinary outpatient setting. Use of antibiograms could aid in empirical antimicrobial drug selection in a manner that supports antimicrobial stewardship principles.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the microbial integrity of preservative-free cyclodextrin-based alfaxalone in a multiple-use system.

SAMPLE 22 vials of preservative-free alfaxalone.

PROCEDURES 2 storage conditions (room temperature, 22°C; refrigerated temperature, 4°C) and 3 handling techniques (closed system transfer device, nonclosed dispensing pin, and manufacturer-supplied vial stopper) comprised 6 treatment groups (3 replicates/group). An aliquot (0.5 mL) was withdrawn from each vial daily for 14 days. Samples were immediately inoculated into tryptic soy broth and incubated at 36°C for 24 hours; samples were subcultured onto 5% Columbia sheep blood agar and incubated for 48 hours. Isolated colonies were evaluated for identification.

RESULTS There was no evidence of microbial contamination of vials stored for 7 days in refrigeration and handled with a protected port (closed system transfer device or nonclosed dispensing pin).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The US FDA prohibits the use of alfaxalone beyond 6 hours after the vial stopper is broached (punctured), as mandated for a preservative-free injectable medication. Findings for the study reported here supported the use of alfaxalone for 7 days when refrigerated and handled with a single puncture of the stopper by use of a protected port (closed system transfer device or nonclosed dispensing pin). This would appear to be a practical alternative for an injectable anesthetic. It would minimize drug waste and the subsequent environmental impact for disposal of unused drug and allow standardization of storage and handling protocols for alfaxalone use in veterinary practices across the United States.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with strongyle infection and parasite reduction strategies associated with low strongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) in goats on farms in North Carolina.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 631 adult goats on 52 farms in North Carolina.

PROCEDURES Participating farms were visited to collect fecal samples from goats and administer a survey regarding goat, environmental, and management factors. The McMaster technique was used to determine strongyle FEC for each sample. Univariate followed by multivariate modeling was performed to identify factors associated with FEC at the farm and individual goat level.

RESULTS Multivariate analysis controlling for several other factors and multiple comparisons revealed that farms on which no anthelmintic drugs had ever been used had the lowest mean FECs, compared with farms on which specific strategies for parasite control were used; no other variables were significant. For individual goat FEC, significant variables included goat breed, breed type, owner-defined purpose, daily dietary protein intake, and fecal coccidia score. In particular, companion goats (vs meat or dairy goats) had the lowest FECs. Higher dietary protein intake and coccidia scores were associated with higher FECs. Among females, goats that had kidded in the last 6 weeks had the highest FECs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Various factors were identified that appeared to influence the likelihood of strongyle infection in goats. The finding that farms with no history of anthelmintic use had the lowest mean FECs suggested that a focus on preventative measures could reduce the need for anthelmintic drugs and, by extension, lessen the opportunity for the development of anthelmintic resistance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid immunoassay (RIA) for point-of-care detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) of dogs, compared with criterion-referenced diagnosis with bacterial culture.

SAMPLE 200 urine samples obtained from dogs and submitted to a veterinary microbiology diagnostic laboratory for routine bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility determination.

PROCEDURES Samples were evaluated by use of quantitative bacterial culture and the RIA. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the RIA were calculated; results of bacterial culture were the criterion-referenced outcome. A κ statistic was calculated to determine agreement between bacterial culture and RIA results.

RESULTS 56 of 200 (28%) urine samples had positive results for bacterial growth by use of culture methods; there were 38 (19%) positive results likely to be associated with bacterial UTI on the basis of sample collection method and bacterial concentration. Sensitivity and specificity of the RIA for detecting samples likely to be associated with UTI (≥ 1,000 CFUs/mL) were 97.4% and 98.8%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the RIA for bacterial cultures with likely UTI were 0.949 and 0.994, respectively. Agreement between bacterial culture and RIA outcome for UTI was substantial (weighted κ, 0.718).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The RIA test evaluated in this study accurately detected UTI of dogs, compared with detection with the criterion-referenced bacterial culture method. Use of this point-of-care RIA could allow clinicians to diagnose UTI at the time of a patient visit and provide information useful for immediately initiating empirical antimicrobial treatment. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:162–166)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—71 veterinarians.

Procedures—An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance.

Results—Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association