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OBJECTIVE To determine long-term outcome for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with endometriosis that underwent surgical treatment and identify factors potentially associated with long-term outcome.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 11 female rhesus macaques.

PROCEDURES Medical records of female rhesus macaques in which endometriosis was diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 and that underwent abdominal exploratory surgery were reviewed.

RESULTS In 5 macaques, the only clinical abnormality was a caudal abdominal mass identified during a routine physical examination, and in 6 macaques, overt clinical signs of endometriosis, including anorexia, dysmenorrhea, and lethargy during menses, were reported. Five macaques had histologically confirmed complete ovarian removal, and another 5 had incomplete ovarian removal (ovarian tissue was not examined histologically in 1 macaque). Nine animals survived at least 12 months after surgery, and 6 survived at least 60 months after surgery. Macaques that did not have overt clinical signs were significantly more likely to survive at least 60 months after surgery. However, extent of ovarian removal was not significantly associated with survival 12 or 60 months after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, in select situations, surgery (ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy) may be curative in macaques with endometriosis and may result in long-term survival. Further, findings suggested that monitoring until clinical signs appear before performing surgery is not warranted in adult female macaques suspected to have endometriosis that only have a caudal abdominal mass and no other overt clinical signs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To explore the role of the hidden curriculum in residents’ development of professional identity during postgraduate training in laboratory animal medicine.


24 residents enrolled in 1 of 7 laboratory animal medicine training programs in the eastern US.


24 qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted and recorded. Deidentified transcriptions were analyzed by each author using open and axial coding. Constant comparative methodology was used to develop themes and subthemes. Member checks were performed to verify trustability of the conclusions drawn.


3 themes and their related subthemes emerged from the qualitative analysis: 1) building relationships through competent communication (building rapport, practicing clinical empathy, overcoming language barriers, communicating in the “authorized” way, and navigating email limitations), 2) tension within the process of identity formation (acting as the middleman among stakeholders, overcoming the stigma of the policing role, experiencing a lack of power to impact change, and managing a culture of conditional value of veterinary knowledge), and 3) outlets for tension in identity formation (reliance on residency mates, limitations of venting).


Our findings suggest that residents are navigating professional identity formation under challenging circumstances that include conflicting stakeholder needs, conditional value of veterinary knowledge, and lack of power to influence change. Residents have limited outlets for relieving the discord between their ideal professional role and their lived experiences. These results provide an important background for refining curricula and creating effective support systems for residents.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association